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# 1(22) 2016: Thanatos and Culture
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In Memoriam Mikhail Uvarov (1955-2013)

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Topic of the Issue

Olga KIRILLOVA

Associate Professor, PhD in Philosophy, MPhil in European Literature (University of Cambridge)

Mortal Cinematic Code in 'Decadent Patterns' of Film

The article represents a study of 'mortal film code' in so-called 'decadent pattern' in cinema. Various levels of 'mortal film code': morphological, symbolical, auditory, subliminal etc. have been analysed using examples from Russian 'decadent cinema'.

Key words: mortal cinematic code, thanathology of cinema, thanathochronotope, 'style- murder', 'death-fitting'.

References

  • Arkus L., Kovalov O. Istorija voprosa. // Seans. #17-18. [Jelektronnyj istochnik. http://seance.ru/17-18/novyj-geroy/istoriya-voprosa/]
  • Kirillova O.A. Dekadentskij kinematograf v rossijskom kinoiskusstve // Voprosy kul'turologii. M.: RIK, 2013. #10. S.86-91.
  • Kirillova O.A. «Dekadentskoe kino» kak kul'turologicheskaja problema. – Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal issledovanij kul'tury. [Jelektronnyj istochnik http://www.culturalresearch.ru/ru/cinema/34-decadcin]
  • Jeko U. O chlenenijah kinematograficheskogo koda // Stroenie fil'ma. M., 1984. S. 81.
  • Kirillova O.A. Mortal'nyj kinokod i vozmozhnosti tanatologii kino. // Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. M.: NLO, 2014. #130. S.74.
  • Metc K. Voobrazhaemoe oznachajushhee. Psihoanaliz i kino. SPb: Izd-vo Evropejskogo un-ta, 2010. S. 214.
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Vladimir VARAVA

Voronezh State University, Russia
Faculty of Philosophy and Psychology
Professor of the Department of Cultural Studies, Doctor of Science (in Philosophy)

The Philosophical Bewilderment and Thanatological Assurance

This article critically examines the various forms of thanatology presented in the biological, psychological and postmodern contexts. Intensive spread of «thanatological discourse» arises from the lack of understanding of death as a phenomenon that is beyond the boundaries of human knowledge. In this connection the work by M. S. Uvarov «"Death of Death": postmodernist project» is analyzed in which thanatology is called gay science», because of the fact that the post-modern discourse of death is indifferent to real death. This means that death is no longer a mystery and tragedy, becoming a fact of everyday culture. It substantiates the idea of the absolute incomprehensibility of death. It becomes clear as a result of philosophical reflection. Philosophy by its nature was initially concerned about the death. It is the most appropriate way to think about death that reveals the human situation. The appearance of thanatology as a «science of death» indicates the oblivion of philosophy with its original questioning, which is a characteristic feature of modern culture.

Key words: death, thanatology, science, psychology, postmodern discourse of death, philosophy, metaphysics, mystery of death, tragedy, modern culture.

References

  • Ado P. Duhovnye uprazhnenija i antichnaja filosofija. M.; SPb. Izd-vo «Stepnoj veter»; ID «Kolo», 2005. 448 s.
  • Andreevskij S.A. Kniga o smerti. M.: Nauka, 2005. 671 s.
  • Baskakov I.Ju. Terapija tanatosa // Psihologija telesnosti mezhdu dushoj i telom. M. AST: 2007. S. 486- 507.
  • Jankelevich V. Smert'. M.: Izdatel'stvo Literaturnogo instituta, 1999. 448 s.
  • Golosovker Ja.Je. Izbrannoe. Logika mifa. M.; SPb.: Centr gumanitarnyh iniciativ, 2010. 496 s.
  • Kuzmin M. Dnevnik 1934 goda. SPb.: Izd-vo Ivana Limbaha, 2011. 416 s.
  • Mechnikov I.I. Jetjudy optimizma. M.: Nauka, 1988. 328 s.
  • Nalchadzhjan A.A. Zagadka smerti. Ocherki psihologicheskoj tanatologii. SPb. : Piter, 2004. 224 s.
  • Rozanov V.V. Smert' … i chto za neju // Smert'. Al'manah. SPb. Iz-vo «Nov. zhurnal dlja vseh», 1910. S. 249-265.
  • Shestov L. Apofeoz bespochvennosti // Shestov L. Sochinenija. M.: Raritet, 1995. S. 176-319.
  • Shor G. V. O smerti cheloveka. Vvedenie v tanatologiju. Leningrad: Kubuch, 1925. 271 s.
  • Uvarov M.S. «Smert' smerti»: postmodernisticheskij proekt // Perspektivy metafiziki. Klassicheskaja i neklassicheskaja metafizika na rubezhe vekov. – SPb.: Izd-vo Instituta Cheloveka RAN (SPb Otdelenie). S. 21-28.
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Olga KOSTINA

Saratov State Academy of Law, Russia
Department of Philosophy, Professor, Doctor of Science (in Philosophy)

On the Issue of Possibility and Prospect

Being as the space of objectives where lity and prospect determine composition and quality of inquiring of a human being is presented in the article. Such strategy of transcendent is antithetic to the logic of utilitarian trimming of culture for definite problems. This is the basis for the revealing of the value content of culture.

Key words: being, possibility, prospect, death, value.

References

  • Ado P. Duhovnye uprazhnenija i antichnaja filosofija. Cheljabinsk, 2010.
  • Averincev S.S. Neoplatonizm pered licom platonovoj kritiki mifopojeticheskogo myshlenija // Platon i ego jepoha. M., 1979.
  • Hajdegger M. Prolegomeny k istorii ponjatija vremeni. Tomsk, 1998.
  • Guseva I.I. V poiskah social'noj struktury: smena metodologicheskih orientirov // Vestnik Sarat. gos.- social'no-jekonomich. un-ta. #4 (58). 2015.
  • Losev A.F. Mifologija grekov i rimljan. M., 1996.
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Andrey MATSYNA

Branch of Military Training and Research Center of the Air Force «Air Force Academy» of Chelyabinsk, Russia
Аssociate Professor of Department of Humanitarian and Socio-economic Disciplines.
PhD, Doctoral Student (D.Sc.) Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Eurasia and East, Chelyabinsk State University.

The Metaphysics of Overcoming as an Integrated Model of the Archaic Perception of Death

This study is an attempt to comprehend the universal meaning of death that goes back to the archaic tradition, the meaning eliminated by the processes of desacralization, socialization, and profanation of consciousness.
The paper focuses on the fundamental inconsistency of modern rational approaches to the issue of the archaic perception of death and, particularly, to the ancient burial rituals that use non-rational prescientific (mythological) forms of perceiving the insurmountable conflict of life and death. In this regard, the central objective of the study is to create a synthetic, integral concept of the metaphysics of death that leads to the possibilities of understanding the archaic meanings of death. This concept can be a comprehensive, ontologically grounded theoretical basis for a unified research approach to understanding ancient burial ritualism.
This concept of the metaphysics of death has the meaning of Ascension to the absolute Spirituality. The central core of this concept should be considered as the metaphysics of Overcoming that reflects the dynamism of the inner spiritual existential space reflecting the ratio between the immanence of part and the transcendence of the holistic Being. The metaphysics of Overcoming as an archaic general social mechanism pointed towards a society balanced in its spiritual and material development. In this paper, we proposed the ways to study burial rituals that imply a unified approach to the burial ritual as a global archaic initiatory act.

Key words: ancient burial rite, the death of metaphysics, Return ontology, оntology of myth, metaphysics of overcoming, the dialectic of objectivity and energetic.

References

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  • Macyna A.I. Smert' kak ontologicheskaja kategorija (Metafizika smerti). Diss. kand. filosofskih nauk. Cheljabinsk, 2006. 150 s.
  • Macyna A. I. Dinamicheskaja model' arhaicheskogo vosprijatija smerti kak rezul'tat filosofskogo osmyslenija drevnej pogrebal'noj obrjadnosti//«Vestnik ChelGU», serija
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Marat MUSIN

P. G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University, Russia
Department of Philosophy, Associate Professor, PhD

Paradigms of Death

The article is devoted to the paradigms (metaphysical images) of death and its reflection in culture. One identifies two conceptual forms in premodern condition: manifestatsionizm and creationism. Death as absolute annihilation and the absence manifests itself in the monotheistic creationism. Death here is not the source and measure of life, and its limits. «Death of God» as the central event of modernity is a product of man and the objectification of the transcendental subject. In the anthropocentric world the experience of death is the experience of generating the individual – an entirely new modality of human being in comparison to the sacrocentric paradigm. The postmodern metaphysical image of death can be described as «Death dead». This death is sterile; it does not produce anything.

Key words: metaphysical image, death, premodern, modern, postmodern, manifestatsionizm, creationism, Descartes, subject, individual, dividuum.

References

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Sergey CHEBANOV

St. Petersburg State University, Russia
Philological Faculty, Dep. of Applied Linguistics
Professor, Dr. Sci. (Philology)

Landscape and Thanatos

The theory of landscape constituted many conceptual gaps until nowadays. In this article landscape is regarded from the viewpoint of the general vitology as a complex organism which constitutes as its main feature the generation of various regularities. Life is regarded here as the interruption of these regularities, and death is regarded as their loss and destruction lead to corpse-formation when the organism is reduced to the body and then to the destruction of this body.

Key words: landscape, organism of landscape, life of landscape, corpse of landscape, death of landscape, cadavrization of landscape, general vitology.

References

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  • Stepanov Ju.S. Semiotika. M.: Nauka, 1971. 168 s.
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  • Tishhenkov A.A., Alekseeva O.S. Gnezdovaja ornitofauna kladbishh i parkov Tiraspolja // Berkut, 2003, t.12, vyp.1- 2. S. 21-31.
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  • Cimmer K. Mikrokosm: E.coli i novaja nauka o zhizni. M.: Al'pina non-fikshn, 2013. 394 s.
  • Chebanov S.V. Vzaimodejstvie so smert'ju kak tvorchestvo // Holizm i Zdorov'e, # 1(9), 2014. S. 11-17.
  • Chebanov S.V. Intelligencija: cennost' poliontologij i mezhkul'turnyj dialog // Differenciacija i integracija mirovozzrenij: jekzistencial'nyj i istoricheskij opyt. Mezhdunarodnye chtenija po teorii, istorii i filosofii kul'tury. Vyp.20. SPb: Jejdos, 2004. S. 197–219.
  • Chebanov S.V. Morfologicheskie osnovanija tipologii semioticheskih sredstv // Ponimanie i refleksija. Materialy Tret'ej Tverskoj germenevticheskoj konferencii. T.1. Tver': TGU, 1995. S. 24-33.
  • Chebanov S.V. Smert' kak izvrashhenie zhizni // Trudy konf. "Tema smerti v duhovnom opyte chelovechestva". Figury tanatosa. 5 special'nyj vypusk. SPb: SPbGU, 1995
  • Chebanov S.V. Tipologija semioticheskih zachjorkivanij v rekonstrukcii Letnego sada // Vestnik Sankt- Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta tehnologii i dizajna. Ser. 2. Iskusstvovedenie. Filologicheskie nauki. 2014, #3. S. 47-57.
  • Cherkasova Ju. V poslednij zeljonyj put' // Zeljonyj gorod, 23.6.2015 – http://green-city.su/poslednij- zelyonyj-put/ (data obrashhenija 22.03.16).
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Konstantin ISUPOV

Herzen State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Professor, Doctor of Sciences (in Philosophy)

Russian Eros and Metaphysics of Death

The article exposes the philosophic and aesthetic specific traits of Russian erothanathology based on traditions of Russian Silver Age Religious Renaisance deeply rooted in F.Dostoevsky. This philosophy of human descending from Dostoevsky had been developed as philosophy of the Other in Russian Silver Age authors, such as L.Karsavin, B.Vysheslavtsev, P.Florensky et al, and related to the negation of binary oppositions of ethics and aesthetics in erothanathology constituting concepts of lack of freedom, violence, compulsion, victim, death as well as unity, wholeness and free choice of a human.

Key words: metaphysics of unfreedom, eschatology, life aesthetics, another.

References

  • Bahtin M. M. Jestetika slovesnogo tvorchestva. M., 1979.
  • Leont'ev K. N. O vsemirnoj ljubvi, po povodu rechi F.M. Dostoevskogo na Pushkinskom prazdnike // O Dostoevskom. M., 1990.
  • Solov'ev V. S. Soch.: V 2 t. 2-e izd. M., 1990.
  • Stepun F. Nikolaj Pereslegin. Parizh, 1929.
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Natalia SAPOZHNIKOVA

Nizhnevartovsk State University, Russia
Professor of Chair of History of Russia
Doctor of Sciences (in Philosophy), Phd in History

"Russian Thanatos": N. Gogol in his Letters about Life, Death and Immortality

Millennial roots thanatology – from ancient traditions to the concepts of M. M. Bakhtin, M. K. Mamardashvili, S. Kierkegaard allow to evaluate the contribution of the Russian "Thanatos" N. Gogol's epistolary to this eternal theme.

Key words: thanatology, Russian Thanatos N.Gogol, epistolary genre.

References

  • Goncharov S.A. Tvorchestvo Gogolja v religiozno- misticheskom kontekste. SPb, 1997.
  • Gurdzhiev G. Besedy Vel'zevula so svoim vnukom. Minsk, 2000.
  • IRLI (PD). F. 652. Op. 2. D. 134.
  • Perepiska N.V.Gogolja // Starina i novizna. 1900. Kn. 3.
  • Petrovskaja E.V. Figury vremeni // Voprosy filosofii. 2000. # 10.
  • Pushkin A.S. Polnoe sobranie sochinenij: V 16 t. M.; L., 1949. T. 16.
  • Smirnov S.A. Opyty po filosofskoj antropologii // Filosofskie nauki. 1998. # 3-4.
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Roman KRASILNIKOV

Vologda State University, Russia
Professor of Department of Theory and History of Culture and Ethnology
Doctor of Sciences (in Philology)

Thanatopoetics in the Context of Mikhail Bakhtin’s Ideas

The article is devoted to one of the sections of literary thanatology – thanatopoetics (A. Hansen-Loeve). We consider the contribution of Mikhail Bakhtin to the study of this problem, especially his articles about the subject organization of thanatological plot situations. The ways of narration about death («death from the outside», «death from the inside»), proposed by the scientist, are identified and described. On their basis, as well as on the basis of the modern narratological theories, we offer and substantiate some additional narrative models («death from the inside, but from the outside», «death from the outside, but from the inside»). These types of narration affect the representation of the theme of death, causing the specifics of attitude to death and stylistic devices, expressing this specifics.

Key words: thanatology, thanatopoetics, Bakhtin, subject organization, narrative model.

References

  • Hansen-Loeve, A. A. Grundzuge einer Thanatopoetik. Russische Beispiele von Puskin bis Cechov // Thanatologien, Thanatopoetik, der Tod des Dichters, Dichter des Todes (Tagung Munchen 2006) / hrsg. A.A. Hansen-Loeve. Munchen, Wien, Bamberg: Sagner, 2007. S. 7- 78.
  • Hansen-Loeve, A. A. Mandel’schtam’s Thanatopoetics // Reading in Russian Modernism. M.: Nauka, 1993. P. 121- 122.
  • Bahtin, M. M. Sobranie sochinenij: v 7 t. M.: Russkie slovari, 1997.
  • Garshin, V. M. Sochinenija. M.: Hudozh. lit., 1983.
  • Zhenett, Zh. Figury: v 2 t. M.: Izd-vo im. Sabashnikovyh, 1998. T. II.
  • Krasil'nikov R. L. O literaturovedcheskoj tanatologii / R. L. Krasil'nikov // Izvestija Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser. 2, Gumanitarnye nauki. 2010. N 2 (76). S. 137-144.
  • Pojetika: slovar' aktual'nyh terminov i ponjatij / gl. nauch. red. N. D. Tamarchenko. M.: Izd-vo Kulaginoj; Intrada, 2008.
  • Turgenev, I. S. Polnoe sobranie sochinenij i pisem: v 28 t. M.; L.: Nauka, 1963. T. VI.
  • Tjupa, V. I. Analiz hudozhestvennogo teksta. M.: Izd. centr «Akademija», 2006.
  • Shmid, V. Narratologija. M.: Jazyki slavjanskoj kul'tury, 2008.
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Nikolay KHRENOV

State Institute of Art Research, Moscow, Russia
Chef Researcher, Doctor of Sciences (in Philosophy), Professor

Culture and Anomie: Death as a Phenomenon for Cultural Study

Various periods of cultural crisis in Russian culture which arouse academic interest to the question of Thanatos and the peaks of suicides are analyzed in the article from the point of the concept of social anomie by E.Durkheim and put through sociological and culturological approaches.

Key words: thanatos, anomie, decadence, mentality, suicide.

References

  • Akunin B. Ljubovnica smerti. M., Zaharov, 2001.
  • Ar'es F. Chelovek pered licom smerti. M., «Progress – Akademija», 1992.
  • Bahtin M. Tvorchestvo Fransua Rable i narodnaja kul'tura Srednevekov'ja i Renessansa. M., Hudozhestvennaja literatura, 1965.
  • Berdjaev N. Istoki i smysl russkogo kommunizma. M., Nauka, 1990.
  • Berdjaev N. K filosofii tragedii. Moris Meterlink // Berdjaev N. Filosofija tvorchestva, kul'tury i iskusstva. V 2 t. T. 2. M., Iskusstvo, 1994.
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  • Bulgakov S. Dva grada. Issledovanie o prirode obshhestvennyh idealov. SPb, Izdatel'stvo Russkogo Hristianskogo gumanitarnogo instituta, 1997.
  • Gajdenko P. Vladimir Solov'ev i filosofija Serebrjanogo veka. M., «Progress – Tradicija», 2001.
  • Gurevich A. Smert' kak problema istoricheskoj antropologii // Gurevich A. Istoricheskij sintez i shkola «Annalov». M., 1993.
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  • Merezhkovskij D. Jestetika i kritika. T. 1. Moskva – Har'kov. 1994.
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  • Strelkov V. Smert' i sud'ba // Ponjatie sud'by v kontekste raznyh kul'tur. M., Nauka, 1994.
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Alexandеr LIUSYI

D.S.Likhachev Russian Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage, Moscow, Russia
PhD, Senior Researcher
Russian New University, Professor

Thanatos Border: Defiance Defect

Mortal space is treated as very disciplinary. In Russia this space is not clearly defined. The XX century was a period of body domination. The most significant works of art show the image of a dying body. The culture of the XXI centuryis marked by the emergence of interest to the posthumous existence of the body and also to mobilization of already dead body.

Key words: disciplinaryspace, landscape, embodiment, measure, transformation, death, succession.

References

  • Demin V. Tajny Vselennoj // http://www.e- lib.info/book.php?id=1120000895&p=3
  • Ilichevskij A.V. Aj-Petri. M., 2007.
  • Zhizhek S. Hrupkij absoljut, ili Stoit li otkazyvat'sja ot hristianskogo nasledija. M., 2003.
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  • Merlo-Ponti M. Fenomenologija vosprijatija. SPb, 1999.
  • Prohanov A. Gospodin Geksogen. M., 2002.
  • Sel'vinskij I. Ballady, plakaty i pesni. Krasnodar, 1942.
  • Sel'vinskij I. Dokumenty // RGALI. F. 1160, op. 1, e.h. 5.
  • Jankelevich V. Smert'. M., 1999.
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Konstantin OCHERETYANY

St. Petersburg State University, Russia
Centre for Mediaphilosophy, Scientific Secretary, PhD

Thanatology of Culture: the Case of Byzantium

Despite the fact that the question of cultural decline is quite explored, and models of describing the logic of the rise and the fall of cultures are presented in modern theory, the question of possibility for a «virtually dead» culture to live by means of the other «virtual live» culture it is still not explored. In this article an attempt to describe the culture of death as a desire to survive and translate information about itself through «inorganic» channels on the example of Byzantium is offered. The consequences of «translation» of thanatological cipher of Byzantine in Russian and European cultural code are analyzed.

Key words: pseudomorphs, museumification, cultural code, the death drive, symbolization, culture-virus, technology, agonistic, a collective body, imperial consciousness.

References

  • Fedorov N. F. Iz I toma «Filosofii obshhego dela» // Fedorov N. F. Sochinenija. M.: Nauka, 1982.
  • Florenskij P. A. Ikonostas // Florenskij P. A. Ikonostas: Izbrannye trudy po iskusstvu. SPb.: Mifril, Russkaja kniga, 1993.
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Natalia SHMELEVA

Minin State Pedagogical University of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Department of Philosophy and Social Sciences
Associate Professor, PhD

Image of Death in American Cinema

Image of death becomes one of the main signs of emerging critics of the traditional parameters of culture and consciousness in modern world. Destruction of the classical norm and traditions connecting with death, is a sign of new parameters of modern man`s consciousness. In this article the features of cultural embodiment of death`s image in American cinema is discussed. It has strong connection to apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic themes of the end of XXth beginning XXIth century. The evolution of the end of world, specifics of American approach to the individual and collective death of movie characters are shown. The images of «American Adam», «American innocence» and «American Dream» become a powerful basis for the viewer's consciousness. It discovers the perception of reality, visual aesthetics of death and its accompanying ideology.

Key words: modern culture, cinema, mythology, apocalypse, post-apocalypse, «American Adam», «American innocence», «American dream», cultural norm, image of death.

References

  • Frye N. Anatomy of Criticism. Princeton, 1957. 383 p.
  • Vovelle M. La mort et l’Occident de 1300 a nos jours". Paris, Gallimard, 1983. 793 p.
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  • Vejman R. Istorija literatury i mifologija. Ocherki po metodologii i istorii literatury. M., 1975. 344 s.
  • Kavelti, Dzh. Izuchenie literaturnyh formul // Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. – 1996. – # 22. – S. 33-64.
  • Kutyrev V.A. Smotrite, kto prishel... O konce soznanija i nachale myshlenija // Jepistemologija i filosofija nauki. 2007. T. 13. # 3. S. 37-48.
  • Lotman Ju. M. Vnutri mysljashhih mirov: Chelovek – tekst – semiosfera – istorija. M., 1996. 464 s.
  • Jeliade M. Mif o vechnom vozvrashhenii. Arhetipy i povtorjaemost'. SPb., 1998. 249 s.
  • Jepshtejn M. Postmodern v Rossii. Literatura i teorija. M., 2000. 368 s.
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Theory of Art




Dimitry SPIVAK

D.S.Likhachev Russian Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage, Russia
Head of Center for Basic Sociocultural and Cultural Psychological Studies
Human Brain Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, Russia
Principal Research Fellow, Doctor of Sciences (Philology)

 


Lyubov BUGAEVA

St. Petersburg State University, Russia
Faculty of Philology, Associate Professor, Doctor of Sciences (Philology)

 

 


Mikhail STEPANOV

St. Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design, Russia
Associate Professor, PhD in Philosophy

 

 


Alina VENKOVA

Нerzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia
Associate Professor, PhD in Cultural Studies

Art and Brain: Actual Directions of Research

Actual issues in studies of psychological mechanisms of art perception and their brain correlates, from neuroaesthetics by S.Zeki – V.Ramachandran to the cartography of neuroaesthetic space by G.A.Ivanitsky, are regarded. Special attention is devoted to the development of neurocinematics, from the axiomatics by U.Hasson to the results of the research group of P.Tikka, as well as to interim results of the studies of cultural psychological potentials of the subliminal perception research direction.

Key words: fundamental issues in cultural studies, neuroaesthetics, neurocinematics, perception of art text, psychological processes and states, brain mechanisms of art perception.

References

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  • Doveling K., von Scheve Chr., Konijn E. Emotions and Mass Media: An Interdisciplinary Approach // The Routledge Handbook of Emotions and Mass Media. - Routledge, 2011.
  • Engineering Nature: Art and Consciousness in the Post-Biological Era / Ed. R.Ascott. Bristol: Intellect Books, 2006.
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  • Imagery in the 21st Century. / Grau, Oliver. ed. Cambridge, MIT-Press, 2011.
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  • Hasson, U., Landesman, O., Knappmeyer, B., Vallines, I., Rubin, N. & D.J. Heeger. “Neurocinematics: The Neuroscience of Film”, Projections 2 (2008), pp. 2– 3.
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  • Rizzolatti G., Craighero L. The mirror neuron system // Annual Review of Neuroscience, 2004. Vol.27, p.169– 192.
  • Sensorium, Embodied Experience, Technology and Contemporary Art / Ed. C.Jones. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
  • Signs of Life. Bio Art and Beyond Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
  • Stamenov M., Gallese V. Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Brain and Language // Advances in Consciousness Research, 42. John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2002.
  • Tikka P. The Queen. Aalto University, 2013.
  • Tovee M.J., Tasker K., Benson P.J. Is symmetry a visual cue to attractiveness in the human female body? // Evolution and Human Behavior, 2000, 21, p.191-200.
  • van Buren, B., Bromberger B., Potts D, Miller B., Chatterjee A. Changes in painting styles of two artists with Alzheimer’s disease // Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. Vol. 7(1), February 2013. Topic of the Issue: Neuroaesthetics: Cognition and Neurobiology of Aesthetic Experience
  • Wake L. Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy: A Postmodern Perspective. USA, Routledge, 2008.
  • Weibel P., Mignonneau L., Sommerer C. Interface Cultures // Hybrid - Living in Paradox. Ostfildern-Ruit, Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2005.
  • Westphal-Fitch G., Oh J., Fitch W. T. Studying aesthetics with the method of production: Effects of context and local symmetry // Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. Vol. 7(1), February 2013. Topic of the Issue: Neuroaesthetics: Cognition and Neurobiology of Aesthetic Experience
  • Wexler B.E. Brain and Culture: Neurobiology, Ideology and Social Change. Cambridge, MIT Press, 2006
  • Wilson S. Art + Science Now. L., Thames & Hudson 2010.
  • Zaidel D.W., Nadal M., Flexas A., Munar E. An evolutionary approach to art and aesthetic experience // Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. Vol. 7 (1), February 2013. Topic of the Issue: Neuroaesthetics: Cognition and Neurobiology of Aesthetic Experience.
  • Zeki S. Artistic Creativity and the Brain // Science, 2001, Vol.293, July 6, p.51-52.
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  • Grau, O. Jemocii i immersija: kljuchevye jelementy vizual'nyh issledovanij. / Per. s nem. A. M. Gajsina. — SPb.: Jejdos, 2013. — 56 s.
  • Grau, O. Fantasmagoricheskoe vizual'noe koldovstvo XVIII stoletija i ego zhizn' v media iskusstve. / per. s nem. M.A.Stepanova // Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal issledovanij kul'tury. – 2012. #5(6). - S.101-110.
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Dimitry SPIVAK

D.S.Likhachev Russian Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage, Russia
Head of Center for Basic Sociocultural and Cultural Psychological Studies
Human Brain Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, Russia
Principal Research Fellow, Doctor of Sciences (Philology)


Eugene PUSTOSHKIN

International Integral Institute of Holoscendence, St.Petersburg, Russia
Psychologist


Anna KHESINA

Human Brain Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, Russia 
Postgraduate Student


Andrey ZAKHARCHUK

S.M.Kirov Military Medical Academy, St.Petersburg, Russia
Lecturer, PhD (Medical Sciences) 
"Opeka" Social Geriatric Centre, St.Petersburg, Russia
Deputy Chief


Irina SPIVAK

Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, Russia, Senior Research Fellow
St.Petersburg State University, Faculty of Biology, Associate Professor
St.Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Chair of Medical Physics, Associate Professor, PhD

Psychological Effects of Perception of Traditional / Non-traditional Music and their Brain Correlates

Article 1: Psychological Effects

Psychological effects of perception of music by 63 normal young Russian city dwellers were studied. Stress coping strategies, primitive in functional and ontogenetic terms (confrontation, avoidance) were demonstrated to be primarily affected, as well as such basic psychological defense mechanisms, as suppression. Differences in the effects of perception of the traditional (light European classical) music and the non-traditional (contemporary designer) one were traced back, primarily at the level of general psychological tension. As a result, possible psychological mechanisms supporting the adaptive function of culture, are discussed.

Key words: psychological states and processes, stress coping strategies, psychological defense mechanisms, perception of music, traditional and non-traditional art, cultural inheritance.

References

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  • Cervellin G., Lippi G. From music-beat to heart-beat: a journey in the complex interactions between music, brain and heart. // European Journal of Internal Medicine, 2011, Vol.22, No.4, p.371-374.
  • Chanda M., Levitin D. The neurochemistry of music // Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2013, Vol. 17, No. 4, p. 179-193.
  • Clift S. Creative arts as a public health resource: Moving from practice-based research to evidence-based practice // Perspectives in Public Health, 2012, Vol.132, No.3, p.120-127.
  • Companion to Cultural Memory Studies / Eds. Erll A., Nuenning A. Berlin / Boston, W. de Gruyter, 2010.
  • Croom A. Music, neuroscience, and the psychology of well-being: a precis // Frontiers in Psychology, 2012 // http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00393.
  • Zharinov G.M., Anisimov V.N. Music and longevity // Advances in Gerontology, 2014. Vol.27, No.2., p. 284- 290.
  • Danilenko O. I. Individuality in Context of Culture. Psychology of Mental Health. St.Petersburg, St.Petersburg State Universiy, 2008, p.126-128.
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  • Fundamentals in Culturology / Ed. by I.M.Bychovskaya. Moscow, Editorial URSS, 2005, p. 443-444.
  • Gaser C., Schlaug G. Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians // The Journal of Neuroscience, 2003, Vol.23, No.27, p.9240–9245.
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  • Gomez P., Danuser B. Relationships between musical structure and psychophysiological measures of emotion // Emotion, 2007, Vol.7, No.2, p. 377–387.
  • Goryainova O.I. Structural-functional models in applied culturology: Sources of applied science // Culturology: Basic Foundations of Applied Research. Moscow, Smysl, 2010, p. 87-108.
  • Gruzdev N.V., Spivak D.L. Basic factors of induction of altered states of consciousness // Psikhologicheskiy Zhurnal, 2006, Vol.27, No.3, p.78-85.
  • Gruzdev N.V., Spivak D.L.. An exploratory investigation into the association of neuroticization, cognitive style, and spirituality to reported altered states of consciousness // The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 2006, Vol. 25, p. 56-61.
  • Iovlev B.V., Karpova E.B., Vuks A.Ya. Scale for Psychological Express Diagnostics of Neuroticization Level (NL). St.Petersburg, V.M.Bekhterev Psychoneurological Institute, 1999, p.19-34.
  • Kagan M.S. Culture // Theoretical Culturology. Moscow-Ekaterinburg, Akademicheskiy Proekt / Delovaya Kniga, Russian Institute of Cultural Research, 2005, p. 361- 364.
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  • Kruzhkova O.V., Shakhmatova O.N. Psychological Defenses of Personality. Ekaterinburg, Russian State Professional Pedagogical University, 2006.
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  • McCraty R., Barrios-Choplin B., Atkinson M., Tomasino D. The effects of different types of music on mood, tension, and mental clarity // Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 1998, Vol.4, No.1, p.75-84.
  • Plutchik R. A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotions // Emotion: theory, research, and experience: Vol. 1. NY, Academic Press, 1980
  • Kellerman H., Plutchik R. Emotion-trait interrelations and the measurement of personality // Psychological Reports, 1968, No.23, p.1107-1114.
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  • Romanova E.S. Psychodiagnostics. St.Petersburg, Piter, 2006, p.369-375.
  • Spivak D.L., Gruzdev N.V. Core religious experiences in cross-religious research. // Pluralisme et reconnaissance: Defis des particularismes et des minorites Paris, IIIT France, 2008, p. 373-387.
  • Spivak D.L., Zakharchuk A.G., Pavlov A.E., Spivak I.M. Religious psychological aspects of ageing // Religiovedenie, 2007, No.4, p. 104-110.
  • Spivak I.M., Khesina A.A., Spivak D.L. Ageing and Longevity at Cellular and Organismiv Levels: Impact of Psychological Factors. Saarbruecken, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2015, p.118-123.
  • Spivak L.I, Bechtereva N.P., Spivak D.L, Danko S.G., Wistrand K. Gender-specific altered states of consciousness // The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 1998, Vol.17, No.2, p.181- 185.
  • Wasserman L.I., Ababkov V.A., Trifonova E.A. Stress Coping: Theory and Psychodiagnostics. St.Petersburg, Rech, 2010, p.128-138.
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Mikhail STEPANOV

St. Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design, Russia
Associate Professor, PhD in Philosophy

Cinema as an experience of “erupted” media

The article considers cinema in the media archeology perspective. Cinema as one of the cultural narratives can not only tell stories of social life but also reveal the structure of the world and its cultural and medial organization. Media archeology, with its oppressive desire for abandoned and outdated technological devices, sometimes takes the form of necrophilic passion for contact with the dead and old-fashioned kind of fetishization. Movies with their attention to the narratives play the role of social and technological barometer. It allows to open / erupt the dominant media of popular culture of a certain age to identify short- lived “new” and “old” media.
In Russian language “izverg” means “monster”. Originally “izverg” means the being erupted, outcast, thrown from a human world. I refer to the erupted media as the iconic characters of popular culture. Eruption of media is the kind of communication in popular culture associated with the new means of media that change the culture. This article focuses on the cinematic horror their medial nature.

Key words: cinema, media, media archeology, disautonomy of media, monster, monstrology, vampire, Dracula, Frankenstein, popular culture, media erupted.

References

  • Elsaesser, Thomas The New Film History as Media Archaeology. / Cinemas : revue d'etudes cinematographiques / Cinemas: Journal of Film Studies, vol. 14, n° 2-3, 2004, p. 75-117.
  • Kittler F. Draculas Vermachtnis: technische Schriften. 1. Aufl. Leipzig: Reclam, 1993. S.55-56.
  • Tausk, Victor : Beeinflussungsapparate : zur Psychoanalyse der Medien / Victor Tausk . - 1. Aufl. . - Berlin : Semele-Verl. , 2008 . 96 S.
  • Grau, O. Jemocii i immersija: kljuchevye jelementy vizual'nyh issledovanij. / per. s nem. A. M. Gajsina. — SPb.: Jejdos, 2013. 56 s.
  • Grau O. Fantasmagoricheskoe vizual'noe koldovstvo 18-ogo stoletija i ego zhizn' v media iskusstve. / per. s nem. // Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal issledovanij kul'tury. – 2012. #5(6). S.101-110.
  • Darvin Ch., Jekman P. Ovyrazhenii jemocij u cheloveka i zhivotnyh. 4-e izd. – SPb.: Piter, 2013. – 320 s.: il..
  • Komm D. Formuly straha: vvedenie v istoriju i teoriju fil'ma uzhasov. BHV-Peterburg, 2012. 224 s.
  • Stepanov M.A. Sled mashiny: genealogija «kompleksa apparat-operator» Vilema Fljussera . // Kollektivnaja monografija «Pro&Kontra mediakul'tury» - «Rasshheplenija vizual'nogo: znachenie novyh media». – M: 2015. S. 20-28.
  • Stepanov M.A. Jelementy arheologii media. // Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal issledovanij kul'tury. - 1(14) 2014. – S.92-99.
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Goulnara KHAYDAROVA

N. G. Kuznetsov Naval Academy, St. Petersburg, Russia Lecturer, Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy)

Visual Environment. A View from the Inside

In the situation of the media turn in the culture, defining not only new ways of understanding, but a new kind of rationality, environment that is acceptable for the "slow" visual also stays important. Art images are stored in the unhurried rhythms of perception, offering one of the possible responses to the challenges of media reality. The paper presents the concept of visual ecology by the example of the photography project. Visual ecology in the situation of the image wars is determined by its relation to the personal visual security culture.

Key words: photos, media war, visual ecology, visual security.

References

  • Markvard, O. Iskusstvo kak antifiktsiya – opyit o prevraschenii realnogo v fiktivnoe // Nemetskoe filosofskoe literaturovedenie nashih dney. Antologiya. SPb., 2001.
  • Eickhoff H. Sitzen // Vom Menschen. Handbuch Historische Anthropologie. / Hg. Christoph Wulf. 1997. S. 489-500.
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Francisca FOORTAI

Pushkin Leningrad State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Doctor of Arts, Professor

«Virility» as a Way to Immortality: to the Problem of Courage Visualization in Ancient Greek Classical Sculpture

Each historical era and culture defined the meaning of human existence differently. But there was something in common. It was determined by existential sense of culture. In other words, both meaning and his purpose acquired certain content depending on what place in the metaphysical hierarchy of culture was given to the person.
This article attempts to see and to analyze the connections between the ancient desire of man to find the divine quality of immortality, artistic phenomena and philosophical reflection on this process.
The author suggests to structure the body of the heroes of ancient Greek sculptures dividing them into «ascendes» and «descendes» groups. In our view, sculpture, continuing the tradition of visualization of the sacred idols, was able to bring a new type of «ascendes» heroes, who entered in a world of immortal heroes, in the art space.

Key words: immortality, virility, antique sculpture, visual, archetype, «descendes» hero, «ascendes» hero courage, representation of history, Plato, Garmody, Aristogiton.

References

  • Gerodot. Istorija. V, 55-56 / Gerodot. Istorija v devjati knigah. Izd-vo «Nauka», Leningrad, 1972. Perevod i primechanija G. A. Stratanovskogo, pod obshhej redakciej S. L. Utchenko. Kniga V. Afinej. Pir mudrecov. V 15 knigah. / Per. N.T. Golinkevich / Knigi 1-8; 9-15. M.: Nauka, 2004 -2010, 656 s.
  • Losev A.F. Istorija antichnoj jestetiki. Rannjaja klassika. T.1, § 4, M.: Folio - «AST», 2000, 960 s.
  • Lukian. Izbrannaja proza. M.: «Pravda», 1991, 720 s.
  • Pavsanij. «Opisanie Jellady» /Per. S. P. Kondrat'eva / v 2 t. M.: AST-Ladomir, 2002, 496 s.
  • Pal'ja K. Lichiny seksual'nosti. «U-faktorija», Ekaterinburg, 2006, 880 s.
  • Platon. Dialogi. / Per. S. Ja. Shejnman-Topshtejn / M.: Mysl', 1986, 607 s.
  • Plinij Starshij. Estestvennaja istorija 34.19.72 /Plinij Starshij. Estestvoznanie: Ob iskusstve. / Per. G. A. Taronjana. (Serija «Antichnaja klassika») M.: Ladomir, 1994, 942 s.
  • Plinij Starshij. Estestvennaja istorija Kn.34 IX, 17 // Plinij Starshij. Estestvoznanie: Ob iskusstve. / Per. G. A. Taronjana. (Serija «Antichnaja klassika») M.: Ladomir, 1994, 942 s.
  • Hrenov N. Kino. Reabilitacija arhetipicheskoj real'nosti. «Agraf», M.: 2006, 704 s.
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