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# 2(3) 2011: Art Theory and Artistic Imagination in the Twenty-First Century
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Topic of the Issue

Round Table
"Ethics and Contemporary Art"

This is an edited version of the audio record of the Round Table "Ethics and Contemporary Art", which took place on October 28, 2010. The Round Table was part of the 3rd Russian Congress for Cultural Research with international participation on the topic "Creativity in the Space of Tradition and Innovation".
Moderators: Elena Petrovskaya and Oleg Aronson.

Key words: ethics, contemporary art, transgression, techno-art, actionism

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Michael STEPANOV

Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg State University. Faculty of Philosophy. The center of mediaphilosophy. Researcher.
St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Institute of Cultural Research. Researcher.

"Mode: Theatre".
Interview with Keti Chukhrov

This interview with the philosopher, Keti Chukhrov, the author of the book "BE AND PERFORM — The Project of Theatre in the Philosophical Critique of Art", seeks to clarify the principle content of the project "theatre", which is understood as the existential dimension that brings together ethics, political emancipation and art.

Keti Chukhrov is a poet, an art theorist and a philosopher. She holds a Ph.D. and works at the Art History department in the Russian State University for the Humanities. She is a member of the editorial board of "Art Journal".

Key words: Keti Chukhrov, activism, art, performative art, event, theatre, aesthetic, ethic, artist

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Irina SOKOLOVA

Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg Branch of the Russian Institute for Cultural Research.
Seniour Rearcher. PhD

The Myth of the Eternal Performance — A Review of the Book by Keti Chukhrov "To Be and to Perform: The Concept of "Theatre"

This is a review of the book by Keti Chukhrov "To Be and to Perform: The Concept of "Theatre" in Philosophical Criticism of Art". The review focuses on the social status of Actionism, on the relation between "theatricality" and "performativity," and on the anthropological dimension of artwork.

Key words: Keti Chukhrov, anthropology, mimesis, performativity, performance, theatre

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"Transgressions — Contemporary Art Today":
Interview with Thomas Dreher

In this interview, the German theoretician of contemporary culture, Thomas Dreher, discusses changes in the problematic field of contemporary art in Russia and other countries. Among others, the following questions were discussed: whether conceptual art has a future, whether the "artistic" can dismiss the "theoretical," and whether an independent point of view is possible within the totality of the media sphere.

Thomas Dreher is a German contemporary art theorist. Since 1985, he has been an author and an editor of art journals and periodicals, such as "Das Kunstwerk", "Artefactum", "Artscribe", "Wolkenkratzer", among others. His area of research is connected with performance, conceptual and Internet art, and contextual links in contemporary art space. Thomas Dreher lives and works in Munich.

Key words: Thomas Dreher, new avant-garde, conceptual art, intermediality, art-activism, power, art culture, modern times

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Galina LOLA

Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg State University, Faculty of Art, Department of Design.
Professor, Doctor of Science in Philosophy, member of the Designers' Union in Russia.

Creating Aura: Creativity and/or Creative

Since the beginning of the last century art has been undergoing various metamorphoses; the conceptualization of these metamorphoses raises questions about the act of creation. Contemporary art has different emphases: not uniqueness but originality; not value in itself, but contextuality; not mystery but intrigue. As a result, art is divided into art as a God-inspired creation and art as an encoded message. Accordingly, the aura can be viewed as both a work and a construct. The notion of the "narrative cocoon" helps to explore the process of creating aura in contemporary art.

Key words: aura, cultural context, message, narrative cocoon, semiotic model, discursive practice

References

  1. Tolstoj L. N. Sobranie sochinenij v 22-h t. — T. 9. Anna Karenina. Roman v vos'mi chastjah. — M., 1981. — S. 47.
  2. Ben'jamin V. Proizvedenie iskusstva v jepohu ego tehnicheskoj vosproizvodimosti: Izbrannye jesse. — M., 1996.
  3. Borhes H.-L. Opravdanie Lzhe-Vasilida/Borhes H.-L. Sochinenija v 3-h t. T.1/Per. s isp. — Riga, 1994. — S. 66.
  4. Berger P., Lukman T. Social'noe konstruirovanie real'nosti. Traktat po sociologii znanija. — M.: Medium, 1995
  5. Gergen K. Dzh. Social'nyj konstrukcionizm: znanie i praktika. — Mn.: BGU, 2003
  6. Abel's H. Interakcija, identichnost', prezentacija. Vvedenie v interpretativnuju sociologiju/per. s nem. SPb.: Aletejja, 1999
  7. Joas H. Kreativnost' dejstvija/Per. s nem. Spb.: Aletejja, 2005
  8. Riker P. Vremja i rasskaz. T. 1-2. — M.; SPb.; Universitetskaja kniga, 1999-2000
  9. Bruner Dzh. Zhizn' kak narrativ//Postneklassicheskaja psihologija. 2005, N 1 — S. 9-30
  10. Shmid V. Narratologija. — M.: Jazyki slavjanskoj kul'tury, 2003.
  11. Brokmejer J., Harre R. Narrativ: problemy i obewanija odno al'ternativnoj paradigmy//Voprosy filosofii. 2003. N 3. S. 39.
  12. Lotman Ju. M. Izbrannye stat'i. T. 1: Stat'i po semiotike i tipologii kul'tury. Tallinn: Aleksandra, 1992
  13. Gasparov B. M. Jazyk. Pamjat'. Obraz. Lingvistika jazykovogo suwestvovanija. M.: Novoe Literaturnoe Obozrenie, 1999
  14. Jeko U. Otsutstvujuwaja struktura. Vvedenie v semiologiju. SPb.: TOO TK «Petropolis», 1998.
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Francisca FOORTAI

Russia, St. Petersburg.
Leningrad State University n. a. A. S. Pushkin.
PhD in Art History, Associate Professor.

The Art-Object in Contemporary Art:
"Cult of Vision" and "Packaging Effect"
(an Example of Depeche Mode Album Sleeve Design)

When music is displayed as "goods" it becomes necessary to link the music with attracting the eye — and ear — of the listener. The sale of music CDs has led to the need for the creation and design of music packaging. Of course, the CD cover design has to reflect the music's image. This new cultural art phenomenon, referred to as "cover design" or "sleeve design", has appeared on the edge of music and the imitative arts. An analysis of Depeche Mode's CD design leads to the conclusion that, from a morphological point of view, this new art form is a real synthesis of photography, painting and graphic arts. The varieties and machine circulation also make it a type of design work. The sleeve design (cover) is a morphological phenomenon, taking place on the fringe of art and design.

Key words: sleeve design, art object, morphological phenomenon, graphic design, music, new cultural art phenomenon

References

  1. M. A. Alekseev-Apraksin. Problema kul'turnogo statusa sovremennogo iskusstva. «Fundamental'nye problemy kul'turologi». T. 5. S. 501-502. M. — SPb.: «Novyj hronograf» — «Jejdos». 2009.
  2. Franciska Furtaj. Javlenie klippinga v sovremennoj massovoj kul'ture: opyt kul'turologicheskogo analiza. — S. 126-134.-«Vestnik LGU im. A. S. Pushkina». № 4. T. 1. Serija filosofija. SPb.: 2009.
  3. Kamilla Pal'ja. Lichiny seksual'nosti. «U-faktorija», Ekaterinburg, 2006. C. 52.
  4. A. Ja. Gurevich. Kategorii srednevekovoj kul'tury. M.: «Nauka», 1972. S. 12.
  5. F. Furtaj. «Stil' i civilizacija: osobennosti vzaimodejstvija». — Fundamental'noe i prikladnoe v jetike i jestetike: Materialy VI ezhegodnoj vserossijskoj konferencii 19-20 nojabrja 2004 g. SPb.: 2005; «Dizajn mifa i mif dizajna Filosofija novogo hudozhestvennogo stilja». — Strategii jeticheskoj i jesteticheskoj refleksii: Materialy Vserossijskoj konferencii 18-19 nojabrja 2005 g. — SPb.: 2006
  6. Jelementy dizajna. Pod red. N. Rajli. «Magma», M.: 2004. C. 494.
  7. Dzhonatan Miller. Depeche Mode. Podlinnaja istorija. SPb.: «Amfora». 2009
  8. Brian Eno. Intro — from Anton Corbijn`s book «Star trak». Schirmer/Mosel, 1996. P. 3.
  9. Shaughnessy Adrian. Classic Cool (album sleeve design graphics) from Creative Review, February 1, 2001.
  10. Carson, Paula. To Have and to Hold. (Vaughan Oliver — Company Business and Marketing.-Interview from Creative Review, October 1, 2000
  11. De Ville Nicholas. Album: Style and Image in Sleeve Design — Mitchell Baezley, London, 2003.
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Olga PETROVA

Ukraine, Kiev.
National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.
Professor, PhD in Art Criticism, Doctor of Science in Philosophy.

Ukrainian Experience of Radical Art:
From Riot to Market

In this article, the author demonstrates the evolution of non-conformist art in the Ukraine in the period spanning from the 1980s to mid-1990s — the formation of creativity, pluralism, and non-conformism. In addition, the article shows its frictionless enterance into the sphere of free independent art (under conditions of Perestroika) in the guise of startling radicalism. The author accentuates the dominant line in the development of Ukrainian art during the transition from the 20th to the 21st century, through the rough resistance of categories such as beauty and its opposite: hideousness. Moreover, the article shows the shift of accents in art from riot to the market.

Key words: Ukrainian radical art, performance, social context, art market

References

  1. Avramenko O. Pislja socrealizmu//Nova generacija. — K., 1992. — S. 34.
  2. Kristeva Ju. Sily uzhasa: jesse ob otvrawenii/Per. s fr. A. Kostikovoj. — SPb., 2003.
  3. Petrova O. Mistectvoznavchi refleksih. Istorija, teorija ta kritika obrazotvorchogo mistectva 70-h rokiv HH st. — pochatku HHI st. — K., 2004. — S. 346-350.
  4. Lichkovah V. Divosad kul'turi: Vibrani statti z estetiki, kul'turologiї, filosofiї mistectva. — Chernigiv, 2006.
  5. Sidor-Gibelinda O. Neisnujucha vistavka. — K., 1995. — S. 13.
  6. Kostenko L. Gumanitarna aura naciї, abo Defekt golovnogod dzerkala. — K., 1999. — S. 33.
  7. Voznjak T. Kozhen — bo angel — zhahlivij//"Ї". Nezalezhnij kul'turlogichnij chasopis, № 25, 2002. — S. 16-17.
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Film Studies

Nikolay KHRENOV

Russia, Moscow.
Research Institute of Theory and History of Fine Arts.
Deputy Director, Professor, PhD.

"New Wave" in Russian Cinema:
Andrei Zvyagintsev's Films

The article focuses on the creative career of Andrei Zvyagintsev, a film director of the younger generation in Russian cinema, and analyzes his two films, "The Return" and "The Banishment". The author argues that both films reflect upon the philosophical tradition of existentialism. The article also discusses how the filmmaker follows the traditions of Romanticism and Symbolism, closely related to the recreation of the super-sensual realm through representation of visible and sensual reality. The article's arguments and conclusions allow the author to formulate an idea about the existence of the "New Wave" phenomenon in contemporary Russian cinema.

Key words: empire, existentialism, initiation, ritual of sacrifice, myth, super-sensual, primary image, symbol, the sacred, inter-text, Romanticism, new wave

References

  1. Malinovskij B. Izbrannoe: Dinamika kul'tury. M., 2004. S. 291.
  2. Losev A. Filosofija. Mifologija. Kul'tura. M., 1991. S. 72.
  3. Hrenov N. Jekrannaja interpretacija literatury kak problema stanovlenija al'ternativnoj kul'tury. V kn.: Literatura i zreliwnye iskusstva. Slovo i izobrazhenie v hudozhestvennoj literatury. M., 2008.
  4. Hrenov N. Volja k sakral'nomu. SPb., 2006. S. 125.
  5. Motroshilova N. Civilizacija i varvarstvo v jepohu global'nyh krizisov. M., 2010.
  6. Hrenov N. Smena jesteticheskoj paradigmy v russkoj kul'ture HH veka: fenomen A. Tarkovskogo. Zhurnal «Jentelehija». 2003. № 6. S. 122.
  7. Florenskij P. Iz bogoslovskogo nasledija. Bogoslovskie trudy. M., 1977. № 17. S. 199.
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Olga KIRILLOVA

Ukraine, Kiev.
National Pedagogical University named after M. P. Dragomanov.
The Department of cultural science. PhD in philosophy, senior lecturer.

Symbolic Death of the Father:
On the Deconstruction of Andrei Zviagintsev's Films

The article focuses on the ironic deconstruction of Andrei Zviagintsev's films, as well as the exploration and subversion of the main principles of his film poetics, which includes characteristics of canonized arthouse films and post-modernist irony.

Key words: arthouse films, deconstruction, trace, anonymity, cinema of silence

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Elena BOGATYRIEVA

Russia, Moskow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research.
Leading Researcher, PhD in Philosophy.

Don't Travel by "Titanic" Third Class
(J. L. Godard's "Film Socialism")

The film is examined from the viewpoint of a spectator and his possible associations. The author remembers the retrospective of Godard's films, which took place in Moscow in 1992, as well as the events that served as the backdrop to the festival. The author gives her interpretation of the presence of the movie's Russian phrases and analyzes the language and techniques used in the film. Language arts include the ethical aspects already at the level of formal means. Therefore, discussing lofty matters and appealing to moral values through the use of "slyness, as a technique" are not convincing. Persuasiveness is a kind of measure of both authenticity and efficacy. Mosaic structure and the unexpected combination of different elements are held together by a stable semantic structure. In the absence of such a structure, everything simply hangs in the air. Defamiliarization (distancing) of the "vagueness" and "new lack of clarity" does not lead to the emergence of new meanings. Techniques begin to replicate themselves without resulting in an emergence of meanings. Syntax remains without semantics. The text ends with a question: Will there soon be a new film — "Film Multiculturalism"?

Key words: theory of arts of the 20th century, film theory, European cinema, Godard in Moscow, J. L. Godard, "Film socialism"

References

  1. Kant I. Sochinenija. V 6-ti tt. T. 5. M., 1966. S. 352.
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Vsevolod KORSHUNOV

Russia, Moskow.
Russian State University of Cinematography, named after S. A. Gerasimov (VGIK), Chair of Screenwriting, postgraduate student.
Chief Editor of the documentary films and serials department, the "Culture" channel.

The Temporal Structure of the Film "How I Ended This Summer" by Alexei Popogrebski

"How I Ended This Summer" by Alexey Popogrebsky received mixed reviews from the Russian cinema community. Some people consider it to be the best movie released over the last few years. Others say it doesn't deserve its international success and the Berlin International Film Festival's Golden Bear award, which it was nominated for in 2010. Why has the film caused so much controversy? Most likely, the answer is hidden in the movie itself. It is a movie that was intended to be met with misunderstanding, to irritate viewers. This feeling of discomfort is created by intricately organized artistic time, which itself is based on the binary opposition principle and is woven into the film on different temporal levels.

Key words: Alexey Popogrebski, "How I Ended This Summer", art time, composition, cinema, screenwriting

References

  1. Ozhegov S. I., Shvedova N. Ju. Tolkovyj slovar' russkogo jazyka. M., 1992.
  2. Rudnev V. P. Slovar' kul'tury XX veka: Kljuchevye ponjatija i teksty. — M.: Agraf, 1999. C. 61.
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Lyubov BUGAEVA

Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg State University, Faculty of Philology. Associate Professor, Ph.D.
St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Institute of Cultural Research. Researcher.

Insects:
The Dynamics of Cinematographic Images

The cinematographic life of anthropomorphous insects and insectumorphus men was long preceded by their graphic life. Images of people as insects were, as a rule, based on an allegory (like in animal epics, tales and fables). In "The Golden Beetle" (1907), a dangerous hybrid of an insect and a human being first entered the world of film. The idea of creating a monstrous and menacing insectoid reappeared in a number of movies (mainly American), e.g. "Them!" (1954), "Monster from Green Hell" (1957), "Beginning of the End" (1957), "The Black Scorpion" (1957), "The Deadly Mantis" (1957), "Tarantula" (1955), "Earth vs. the Spider" (1958), "Empire of the Ants" (1977), "Mimic" (1997), "Eight-Legged Freaks" (2002), "Caved In: Prehistoric Terror" (2006), etc. However, a group of friendly insects has lately inhabited the cinema. The characteristics of an insect are often imposed on aliens and robots in science fiction films, e.g. "Starship Troopers" (1997), "I, Robot" (2004), "War of the Worlds" (2005), etc. One more type of cinematographic insect image is expressed in films that play with the idea of metamorphosis, e.g. "Ein Toter hing im Netz" (1960), "The Fly" (1958, 1986), "The Metamorphosis" (2002), "Mansquito" (2005), etc. There is also a tendency to blur the boundaries dividing both images, which began at the dawn of cinematography with films by Władysław Starewicz. Various images of insects and insectoids in the movies not only employ certain stereotypes and ideas, but also probe the borders between the human and non-human.

Key words: insects, film, hybrid, monster, metamorphosis

References

  1. Jampol'skij M. Starevich: mimika nasekomyh i kul'turnaja tradicija//Jampol'skij M. Jazyk — telo — sluchaj. Kinematograf i poiski smysla. M.: NLO, 2004. C. 150.
  2. Jepshtejn M. Metabola kak tip hudozhestvennogo obraza mezhdu metaforoj i metonimiej. Metabola i rizoma//Topos. Proektivnyj slovar' filosofii. Novye ponjatija i terminy. № 19. http://www.topos.ru/article/2553
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Lev YAKOVLEV

Russia, Saratov.
P. A. Stolypin Volga Region Academy of Public Administration.
The Department of sociology, social policy and regional history.
PhD in sociological sciences, professor.

Russian Cinema in the Era of Paradigmatic Shift

The author makes an attempt to outline, with a few strokes, trends in the panorama of contemporary Russian cinema. The doctrine of realism continues to a significant extent, determining the position of critics and audience perception. However, this doctrine does not provide an adequate tool for describing the current reality of Russian cinema. The artistic exploration of reality is currently undergoing significant changes. In addition, it no longer dominates the field. Contemporary Russian cinema is developing different stylistic forms. The best tools of artistic understanding in Russian society today are provided by Arthouse. However, since the author's cinema in the Russian market isn't currently successful, piecemeal attempts are implemented to covertly attract audience's genres. This tactic cannot hope to be successful. Audience differentiation continues to expand. Cinema should become an art form that is easily understood by all audiences. Simplification of film language can only lead to destruction of the author's intention. In cases where this fails to happen, where there is only an imitation of the markers of "popular" cinema, the audience feels cheated. However, within the space of postmodernism, it is possible to create hybrid texts that combine elements of different languages. A multilayered context integrates different levels of perception. Current practices show only the first steps towards this model. The results, of course, contain many eclectic entities, but they are all part of the evolutionary process in the development of film art: the path to a higher degree of freedom.

Key words: postmodernity, the language of cinema, social and cultural analysis, art reality, audience differentiation, realism, intertextuality

References

  1. Gejman N. Prud s dekorativnymi rybkami i drugie istorii//Gejman N. Dym i zerkala. M., Ast, 2005. C. 87-127.
  2. Nasilie i ego vlijanie na zdorov'e. Doklad o situacii v mire/Jet'enn G. M., Izdatel'stvo «Ves' Mir», 2003
  3. Nabokov V. Dar//Nabokov V. Sobranie sochinenij v chetyreh tomah. Tom 3. M., Pravda, 1990. S. 5.
  4. Vil'jam Shekspir. Monolog Gamleta.//Shekspir V. Sonety. M., Sovetskij pisatel', 1955.
  5. Ushakov S. «Minnesota»: vse hokkej//Video.ru. http://www.video.ru/notice/entry/3289
  6. Oldridzh Dzh. Posle poterjannogo pokolenija/Sost. A. S. Muljarchik. — M., 1981
  7. Balonova M. G. Problema geroja v pozdnem tvorchestve Je. Hemingujeja (40-50-e gg.). Kandidatskaja dissertacija. Nizhnij Novgorod, 2002
  8. Derrida Zh. Shpory: stili Nicshe//Filosofskie nauki 1991. № 2.
  9. Ivanov A. Serdce Parmy, ili Cherdyn' — knjaginja gor. M., Azbuka, 2006.
  10. Horkhajmer M., Adorno T.V. Dialektika Prosvewenija. Filosofskie fragmenty. M., SPb.: Medium, Juventa,1997. S. 10-12.
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Concepts of Culture

Alexandre APYKHTIN

Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg State University, Faculty of Philosophy.
Assistant Lecturer of the Department of Aesthetics and Cultural Philosophy, PhD.

The Limits of Ocularcentrism and Human Knowledge:
The History of a Notion

The article deals with the problem of concept-formation as regards the idea of ocularcentrism. This is articulated and conceptualized in the rich context of the new ontology of sight. The ocularcentric paradigm of knowledge is widely represented throughout the entire history of metaphysics. This is why our consideration spans from the early origins of Western civilization to the margins of contemporary thought. This visionary-inspired tradition (including the contributions of Foucault and Derrida) is representative of modern times and contemporary thought.

Key words: vision, continental philosophy, a new "ontology of sight", an epistemological model and cultural studies, the soncept of modernity

References

  1. Fuko M. Rozhdenie kliniki. M.: Smysl, 1998. S. 136.
  2. Fuko M. Istorija seksual'nosti. T.2: Ispol'zovanie udovol'stvij. Spb., 2004.
  3. Fuko M. Chto takoe Prosvewenie?//On zhe. Intellektualy i vlast', ch. 1: Stat'i i interv'ju. M., 2002
  4. Fuko M. Vlast' i telo//Fuko M. Intellektualy i vlast': Stat'i i interv'ju. M., 2002.
  5. Derrida Zh. Forma i znachenie//Pis'mo i razlichie. M., 2000.
  6. Derrida Zh. Golos i fenomen (SPb: Aletejja, 1999); sr. — angl. perevod, Speech and Phenomena. Evanston, 1973
  7. Aristotel', Metafizika VII, 2.
  8. Foucault M. Questions of Method//Baynes, K., Bohman, J., and McCarthy, T. (eds.). After Philosophy: End or Transformation? Cambr., MA, 1987. P. 112
  9. Rajchman J. Foucault and the Philosophy of Freedom. Columbia U.P. (b. g.).
  10. Derrida, J.: «The Principle of Reason: The University in the Eyes of Its Pupils" v Diacritics, vol. 13, N 3 (Fall 1983). P. 4.
  11. Derrida, J. "La mythologie blanche"-cm. angl. perevod v ego zhe: Margins of Philosophy. Shicago, 1982
  12. Derrida, J. "Form and Meaning"//Margins of Philosophy. P. 158
  13. Derrida J., «The Principle of Reason». R. 4.
  14. Modernity and the hegemony of vision/Ed. D.M. Levin. Verkeley — L. A. (Calif.); L., 1993. P. 235-236
  15. Levin D.M. The Opening of Vision. London: Routledge, 1988. P. 69.
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Alexander LYUSY

Russia, Moscow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research, Seniour Rearcher.
PhD in Cultural Science.

HORSEWOMAN OF LACANOMICS:
The hidden pole of the Petersburg text

In this article, the difficult pathway of mutual comprehension of both literature and the fine arts, with their dialectic interrelations and contrasts, is investigated. On the basis of comparing direct reading methods of the Copper horseman, which has been carried out by Vladimir Toporov through the prism of George Fedotov, and Ivan Kramsky's picture "The Unknown person", done (be more specific!) by Olga Kirillova through a prism of Lacan, the author discusses the concept of the existence of the Horsewoman as a hidden pole of the Petersburg text of Russian culture.

Key words: synthesis of arts, actual supervision, a symbolical exchange, a dynamic context, a semiotics sight, institutionalized foreshortening, schizophrenis body, distopia

References

  1. Toporov V. N. O dinamicheskom kontekste "trehmernyh" proizvedenij izobrazitel'nogo iskusstva (semioticheskij vzgljad)//Lotmanovskij sbornik. I. M., 1995.
  2. Filippov A.F. Sociologija prostranstva. SPb., 2008.
  3. Gajdenko P. P. U istokov novoevropejskoj nauki//Naukovedenie. 1999. № 1.
  4. Kirillova O. Serp holodnoj luny: Rekonstrukcija modelej chuvstvennosti. SPb.: Aletejja, 2010.
  5. Toporov V.N. Neomifologizm v russkoj literature nachala HH veka. Roman A. A. Kondrat'eva «Na beregah Jaryni». Trento, 1990. Eurasiatica. Quaderni del Dipartiemento di Studi Eurasiatici Universita degli Studi di Venezia. 16. S. 92-93.
  6. Minakov M. Jazyk distopii: ideologicheskaja situacija Ukrainy//Neprikosnovennyj zapas. 2010. № 5 (73).
  7. Nabokov V. Lolita. SPb., 2004. S. 377.
  8. Egorova E. V. «Rozhdenie Venery» S. Bottichelli kak odin iz kljuchej k romanu «Lolita» V. V. Nabokova//Sintez v russkoj i mirovoj hudozhestvennoj kul'ture. Materialy IX nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii, posvjawennoj pamjati Alekseja Fedorovicha Loseva. M., 2009. S. 98-99.
  9. Prust M. Po napravleniju k Svanu. M., 1977. S
  10. Nabokov V. Kamera obskura. SPb., 2000. S. 14.
  11. Kosachevskaja Je. Mestozhitel'stvo. — SPb.: Aletejja, 2006. S. 257.
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Art Theory

Dennis SOBOLEV

Israel, Haifa.
Haifa Department of Hebrew and Comparative Literature,
University of Haifa. Dr., Professor.

The Space of Literature

The paper aims to analyze the problem of the work of literature, in light of the findings of contemporary literary and cultural theory. After a brief review of the attempts to define the essence of literary discourse in a formal way, the paper turns to the causes of their failure. Drawing upon the ideas of Walter Benjamin, Mikhail Bakhtin, Raymond Williams and Lois Althusser, the paper suggests that the literary text, as well the space of literature as a whole, is characterized by essential 'heterogeneity' and 'overdetermination.' The main goal of this paper, however, is to describe the modalities of this heterogeneity and determination in a more precise manner, and in light of the empirical findings of literary research. This description makes it possible to delineate the clearer contours of the literary work as a cultural phenomenon of extreme complexity — the complexity that any general theoretical discourse must face. As a starting point, the paper turns to the definition of the literary text as an intentional object and examines various theoretical consequences of this definition, such as the immanence of the hermeneutic act and the non-existential structure of temporality. The following section analyzes the double-faceted problem of the phenomenology of the literary work in its relation to immanent constitutive structures, on the one hand, and human existence, on the other. This analysis, in turn, enables the scholar to underscore essentially different meanings and analytical uses of familiar terms, such as 'the author' and 'the reader.' The next section addresses the problem of the stratification of the literary form — partly contrasting it to the phenomenology of content — as well as the diverse modalities of the relation between the thematic and formal components of literary discourse. This analysis is followed by the description of the hermeneutic contexts of literature, and a relatively complex taxonomy of the analytical approaches existing in empirical literary studies. Finally, the paper turns to the multiple and diverse mechanisms of cultural determination, whose analysis requires the crossing of the boundaries of literary studies in the narrow sense of this term. The resultant conception of the literary work, as it emerges from the analysis carried out in this paper, is that of a cultural phenomenon of extreme and asymmetrical complexity, which can hardly be reducible to any formal essence — neither on the level of general theoretical discourse nor in the analysis of a single work.

Key words: literature, literary text, heterogeneity, overdetermination, intentional object, phenomenological approach, formal stratification, hermeneutic contexts, cultural determination, subjectivity, goals of literary analysis

References

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  20. Sobolev Denis. Kontrapunkt kak model'//Paradigma. 2005. № 2. S. 105-117.
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  43. Sobolev, Dennis. "Semantic Counterpoint, Hopkins and The Wreck of the Deutschland". SEL: Studies in English Literature 1600-1900 44 (Fall 2004): 823-848.
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Urban Studies

Elena NEKRASOVA

Russia, St. Petersburg.
St.Petersburg State Theatre Arts Academy, PhD.

"New Cruelty" as an Example to Follow

The modernist project that claimed the importance of a unified art strategy is already out of fashion in Europe. The plurality of artistic space is no longer news. The examples of non-professional Internet content, e.g. action art and homemade YouTube reels, attract attention more often than do professional art products, including genre films, commercial cinema and TV. Today, the actual tendencies in social culture are expressed more clearly in the activity of non-professional authors than through professional art.

Key words: E. Junger, V. Flusser, violence, photography, movie, victim, cultural norms, Internet

References

  1. Junger Je. Rabochij. Gospodstvo i geshtal't. M., 2002. S. 55-440.
  2. Fljusser V. Za filosofiju fotografii. SPb., 2008.
  3. Savchuk V. Filosofija fotografii. SPb., 2005. S. 70.
  4. Kamper D. Vzgljad i nasilie. Buduwee ochevidnosti//Za filosofiju fotografii. Fljusser V. SPb., 2008. S. 102-109.
  5. Fuko M. Nadzirat' i nakazyvat': rozhdenie tjur'my. M., 1999. S. 293.
  6. Bodrijjar Zh. Prozrachnost' zla. M., 2000. S. 224.
  7. Ben'jamin V. Proizvedenie iskusstva v jepohu ego tehnicheskoj vosproizvodimosti. Izbrannye jesse. Predislovie, sostavlenie, perevod i primechanie S. A. Romashko. M., 1996. S. 15-66.
  8. Jeshpaj V. Amerikanskaja kinokollekcija. 1992-2002. M., 2008. S. 20.
  9. Hrenov A. Magi i radikaly: vek amerikanskogo avangarda. M., 2011. S. 5.
  10. Lakan Zh. Stadija zerkala kak obrazujuwaja funkciju Ja, kakoj ona raskrylas' nam v psihoanaliticheskom opyte//Kommentarii, №8, 1996. S. 6-12.
  11. Aronson O. Narodnyj sjurrealizm: pojezija v Internete//Kommunikativnyj obraz: Kino. Literatura. Filosofija. M., 2007. S. 77-61.
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Book Reviews

Alina VENKOVA

Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Institute of Cultural Research. Deputy director.
PhD in cultural research, senior lecturer.

To See and to Speak:
On James Elkins' Book "Exploring the Visual World"

"Exploring the Visual World" by the well known American visual studies specialist, James Elkins, is an anthology of his writings selected for this particular edition. Elkins is presented as both an intellectual adventurer and an academic professor. The laconic sketch of visual studies from an American perspective reminds one of the Russian tradition, which relates to art as a social phenomenon.

Key words: James Elkins, visual studies, global art history, perceptual psychology, visual image, visualization

References

  1. Jelkins Dzh. Issleduja vizual'nyj mir/per. s angl. — Vil'njus: EGU, 2010.
  2. Bjeksendoll M. Uzory intencii. Ob istoricheskom tolkovanii kartin. — M.: JuniPrint, 2003. — 200 s.
  3. Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. «Antropologija kak vyzov», № 106 i «Gumanitarii v poiskah discipliny», № 107 za 2011 g.
  4. Raushenbah B. Geometrija kartiny i zritel'noe vosprijatie. — SPb: Azbuka-klassika, 2011. S. 247.
  5. Shestakov V. P. Vstupitel'naja stat'ja. Arnhejm R. Iskusstvo i vizual'noe vosprijatie. — M.: Arhitektura, 2007. S. 17.
  6. Mewerkina-Rozhdestvenskaja E. Vizual'nyj povorot: analiz i interpretacija izobrazhenij//Vizual'naja antropologija: novye vzgljady na social'nuju real'nost'. — Saratov: Nauchnaja kniga, 2007. S. 30.
  7. Sozercaja istoriju iskusstva: videnie, pozicija i vlast'//Vvedenie v gendernye issledovanija. Ch. II: Hrestomatija. — Har'kov: HCGI, 2011; SPb: Aletejja, 2011. S. 718.
  8. Elkins J. What is Visual Studies//Elkins J. Visual Studies. A Skeptical Introduction. — New York and London: Routlege.
  9. Alpers S. Visual Culture Questionnaire October, Vol. 77. (Summer, 1996).
  10. Waite G. Visual Culture Questionnaire October, Vol. 77. (Summer, 1996).
  11. Buck-Morss S. Visual Culture Questionnaire October, Vol. 77. (Summer, 1996). P. 31.
  12. Nicholas Mirzoeff What is visual culture?//Nicholas Mirzoeff An introduction to visual culture. — Routledge, 1999. P. 6.
  13. Interdisciplinarity and Visual Culture W.J.T.Mitchell//Art Bulletin December 1995 Volume LXXVII Number 4. — P. 543.
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Mikhail STEPANOV

Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg State University. Faculty of Philosophy. The center of mediaphilosophy. Scientist.

Opaque illusions of the term "illusoriness" — A review of the book "Photography and Image: Visual, Opaque, Spectral" by Nina Sosna

The contemporary situation of the media's total dominance dictates the necessity to further research the media. The plurality and ambiguity of definitions of the media compel researchers to construct other concepts, e.g. "ghost". The article analyzes the productivity of the terms "ghostly" or "opaque" instead of the term "medial" in a book by Nina Sosna.

Key words: apparatus, medial, ghost, operator, relations, photo

References

  1. Sosna N. Fotografija i obraz: vizual'noe, neprozrachnoe, prizrachnoe. — M.: Institut filosofii RAN, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2011.
  2. Kamper D. Telo, znanie, golos i sled.//Kamper D Telo. Nasilie. Bol': Sbornik statej/Perevod s nem. — SPb.: Izd. RHGA, 2010.
  3. Fljusser V. O proecirovanii./per. s nem.//Hora. Zhurnal sovremennoj zarubezhnoj filosofii i filosofskoj komparativistiki. — № 3/4, (9/10) — 2009.
  4. Mondzjen Zh-M. Istorija odnogo prizraka//Sosna N. Fotografija i obraz: vizual'noe, neprozrachnoe, prizrachnoe. — M.: Institut filosofii RAN, Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2011.
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