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# 4(9) 2012: Russian Utopia

Topic of the Issue

Vyacheslav SHESTAKOV

Russia, Moskow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research.
PhD, professor.

Utopia as a Problem of Russian Mentality

This article includes a short overview of the history of Russian utopias, and their connection with Russian social events and mentality. The key issue is reflected in a statement about differences between utopia — as a cultural and literary phenomenon, and utopianism — which is a feature of many social, political and religious doctrines.

Key words: mentality, typology, utopianism, the "golden age", urbanism

References

  1. Sventohovskij A. Istorija utopij. — M.1910. S.420.
  2. Uajl'd O. Sochinenija. V 3-h t., M., 2000. T. 3, S.233.
  3. Molnar T. Utopia: The Perennial Heresy. New York, 1972.
  4. Chistov A.I. Russkie narodnye social'no-utopicheskie legendy. — M. «Nauka», 1967.
  5. Walsh Ch. From Utopia to Nightmare. London. 1962. P.14.
  6. Russkaja literaturnaja utopija. / Predislovie i sostavlenie V.P.Shestakova. M, Izd-vo MGU, 1986; Utopija i antiutopija HH veka. / Predislovie i sostavlenie V.P.Shestakova. M., «Progress», 1990.; Russkaja utopija. / Sostavitel' V.E.Bagno. SPb, 1995.
  7. Ushkov A.V. Utopicheskaja mysl' v stranah Vostoka: Tradicija i sovremennost'. L. 1982; Batalov Je.Ja. Utopija i utopicheskoe soznanie v SShA. M., 1982; Paniotova T.S. Utopija v prostranstve dialoga kul'tur. — Rostov/na Donu. 2004; Kitajskie social'nye utopii. M. 1987.
  8. Gal'ceva R.A.Ocherki russkoj utopicheskoj mysli HH veka. M. 1991.
  9. Frolova I.V. Genezis russkogo utopicheskogo soznanija i puti realizacij russkih utopij. Ufa, 1995.
  10. Suslov M.D. S.F.Sharapov i G.M. Shimanov. Dve social'no-politicheskie utopii v jepohu zakata imperii // Konservatizm na Zapade i v Rossii. Perm', 2005. S.113–1354.
  11. Shestakov V.P. Jeshatologija i utopija. Ocherki russkoj filosofii i kul'tury. M. ,1995.
  12. Shestakov V.P. Politics and Utopia: Russian Utopian Novels late HIXth-early XXth Centuries. // International Symposium, European University, Florence. 18–19 October, 2007.
  13. Egorov .B. Rossijskie utopii. Istoricheskij putevoditel'. SPB. 2007; Geller L., Nike M. Utopija v Rossii. / Per. s franc. SPB, 2003; Mil'don V. Sanskrit vo l'dah, ili vozvrashhenie v Ofir. Ocherk russkoj literaturnoj utopii i utopicheskogo soznanija. M., ROSPJeN, 2006.
  14. Shadurskij M.I. Literaturnaja utopija ot Mora do Haksli: problemy zhanrovoj pojetiki i semiosfery. M., 2007.
  15. Baehr S. 'Re-Searching Utopia'.// The Slavic and East European Journal, vol. 42, no. 3. Autumn 1998, P. 517.
  16. Baehr, S. L. The Paradise Myth in Eighteenth-Century Russia. Stanford, 1991; Besançon, A. 'Fonction du rêve dans le roman russe'// Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique, Vol. 9, no. 3, 1968.
  17. Breuillard, J. 'Fragments d'utopies dans la littérature russe du XVIIIe siècle : Levšin et Xeraskov' // Rev. Etud. slaves, LVI/1, 1984.
  18. Clowes, E. W., Russian Experimental Fiction: Resisting Ideology after Utopia. — Princeton, 1934.
  19. Cooke, B., Human Nature in Utopia: Zamyatin's 'We' // Evanston, IL, 2002.
  20. Faggionato, R., A Rosicrucian Utopia in Eighteenth-Century Russia. The Masonic Circle of N. I. Novikov. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005.
  21. Heller, L. et M. Niqueux, Histoire de l'utopie en Russie. Paris, 1995.
  22. Lukashevich, S. N. F. Fedorov (1828–1903). A Study in Russian Eupsychian and Utopian Though. — Cranbury, NJ, 1977.
  23. Monnier, A. 'Une utopie russe au siècle de Catherine' // Cahiers du monde russe et sovietique, 22/2, 1982.
  24. Paperno, I., Creating Life: The Aesthetic Utopia of Russian Modernism. Stanford, 1994.
  25. Stites, R., 'Fantasy and Revolution. Alexander Bogdanov and the Origins of Bolshevik Science Fiction'// Alexander Bogdanov, Red Star: The First Bolshevik Utopia, Bloomington, 1984.
  26. Stites, R., Revolutionary Dreams, Utopian Vision and Experimental Life in the Russian Revolution, New York, 1989.
  27. Suvin, D., "The Utopian Tradition of Russian Science-Fiction" // The Modern Language Review, Vol. 66, No. 1 (Jan. 1971).

Hans GUNTHER

Germanija, Bilefel'd.
Professor slavistiki universiteta goroda Bilefel'd.

Revolution — Utopia — Apocalypse

European philosophy tends to regard Marxism as a form of social-utopian thinking, but many Russian writers of the early 20th century tended to see this trend in chiliastic direction. This fact can be explained by the fact that in the Russian culture of the time, religious beliefs, especially the eschatological doctrine of the end of history, played a much larger role than in Europe. The article investigates eschatological and utopian views in Russian religious philosophy.

Key words: utopia, eschatology, chiliasm, Russian religious philosophy, social theory

References

  1. Kautskij K. Predshestvenniki novejshego socializma. Chast' pervaja. Ot Platona do anabaptistov. Izd. 4-oe. M., 1919. S. HI.
  2. Tam zhe. S. HIV.
  3. K voprosu o social'nom izmerenii apokalipsisa ssylaemsja lish' na samye svezhie publikacii: Nagel, Alexander K. / Schipper Bernd U. / Weymann Ansgar (Hrsg.) Apokalypse. Zur Soziologie und Geschichte religiöser Krisenrhetorik. Frankfurt/New York, 2008; Sorg Reto / Würffel, Stefan Bodo (Hrsg.) Utopie und Apokalypse in der Moderne. München, 2010.
  4. Sm.: Günther H. Utopie nach der Revolution // Vosskamp Wilhelm (Hrsg.) Utopieforschung. Stuttgart, 1982. Bd. 3.
  5. Ukazhem lish' na knigu: Heller L. /Niqueux M. Histoire de l´Utopie en Russie. Paris, 1995; nemeckij perevod: Geschichte der Utopie in Russland. Bietigheim-Bissingen, 2003.
  6. Berdjaev N. Smysl istorii. M., 1999.
  7. Shestakov V. P. Jeshatologija i utopija. M. 1995. Soglasno V. Zen'kovskomu utopija na Zapade svjazana s sekuljanym myshleniem, a na Vostoke s duhom sektantstva, dazhe v ateisticheskoj forme sovetskogo utopizma. Sm.: Zenkovskij V.V. Der Geist der Utopie im russischen Denken // Orient und Occident 16 (1934).
  8. Prugavin A. S. Raskol vverhu. Ocherki religioznyh iskanij v privilegirovannoj srede. SPb., 1909.
  9. Berdjaev N. Russkaja ideja. Parizh, 1971. S. 200.
  10. Jetkind A. Hlyst. Sekty, literatura i revoljucija. M., 1998; sm. tozhe: Niqueux Michel. Le mythe des Xlysty dans la littérature russe // Revue des études slaves 69 (1997). №. 1–2. S. 201–221.
  11. Gerlich F. Der Kommunismus als Lehre vom Tausendjährigen Reich. München, 1920.
  12. Mühlestein Hans. Russland und die Psychomachie Europas. München, 1925.
  13. Bloch E. Das Prinzip Hoffnung. Bd. 3. Frankfurt a. M., 1973.
  14. Sarkisyanz M. Russland und der Messianismus des Orients. Tübingen, 1955. .
  15. Bulgakov S. Dva grada. M., 1997.
  16. Fülöp-Miller R. Geist und Gesicht des Bolschewismus. Zürich; Leipzig; Wien, 1926.
  17. Bulgakov S. Dva grada. M., 1997.
  18. Berdjaev N. Socializm kak religija // Berdjaev N. Novoe religioznoe soznanie i obshhestvennost'. M., 1999 [1907].
  19. Berdjaev N. Istoki i smysl russkogo kommunizma. Parizh, 1955.
  20. Berdjaev N. Russkaja ideja. Parizh, 1971.
  21. Frank S. Eres' utopizma // Novyj zhurnal. 1946. № 14.
  22. Lunacharskij A. Religija i socializm. T. 2. SPb., 1911.
  23. Hansen-Löve Aage A. Allgemeine Häretik, russische Sekten und ihrer Literarisierung in der Moderne // Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sonderband 41. 1993.
  24. Belyj A. Lug zelenyj. M., 1910.
  25. Rosenthal Bernice G. Eschatology and the Appeal of Revolution: Merezhkovsky, Bely, Blok // California Slavic Studies. Vol. 9. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London, 1980.
  26. Hansen-Löve Aage A. Apokalyptik und Adventismus im russischen Symbolismus der Jahrhundertwende // Russische Literatur an der Wende vom 19. zum 20. Jahrhundert. Hrsg. R. Grübel. Amsterdam, 1993.
  27. Merezhkovskij D. Prorok russkoj revoljucii. K jubileju Dostoevskogo // Vesy 1906. № 1.
  28. Mereschkowski D. Der Zar und die Revolution. München, 1908. R. 94. Perevod moj — H. G.
  29. Merezhkovskij D. Carstvo Antihrista. Mjunhen, 1921..
  30. Rozanov V. Apokalipsis nashego vremeni // Rozanov V. Mimoletnoe. M., 1994..
  31. Platonov A. Sochinenija. T. 1–2. M., 2004.
  32. Rozanov V. Russkaja cerkov' // V temnyh religioznyh luchah. M., 1994.
  33. Cm.: Engelstein Laura. Castration and the Heavenly Kingdom. A Russian Folktale. Ithaka/London, 1999.
  34. Solov'ev Vl. Sochinenija. T. 2. M., 1988. S. 545.
  35. Cm.: Matich O. Erotic Utopia. The Decadent Imagination in Russia´s Fin de Siècle. The University of Wisconsin Press, 2005.
  36. Berdjaev N. Smysl tvorchestva // Berdjaev N. Filosofija tvorchestva, kul'tury i iskusstva. T. 1. M. , 1994.
  37. Fedorov N. O nachale i konce istorii // Sobr. soch. v chetyreh tomah. T. 2. M., 1995.
  38. Naiman E. Sex in Public. The Incarnation of Early Soviet Ideology. Princeton, N.J., 1997.
  39. Zalkind A. Polovoj vopros v uslovijah sovetskoj obshhestvennosti. L., 1926.
  40. Sm.: Livers K. Constructing the Stalinist Body. Lanham etc., 2004.
  41. Volkov N. La secte russe des castrats. Ed. C. S. Ingerflom. Paris, 1995.
  42. Zhivov V. Skopcy v russkoj literature (Po povodu knigi N. Volkova) // Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. 1996. № 18.
  43. Cohn N. Das Ringen um das tausendjährige Reich. Bern, München, 1961.
  44. Sm.: Ljubushkina Sh. Ideja bessmertija u rannego Platonova // Russian Literature 23 (1988). № 4.
  45. Hagemeister M. Nikolaj Fedorov. Studien zu Leben, Werk und Wirkung. München, 1989.
  46. Masing-Delic I. Abolishing Death. A Salvation Myth ot Russian Twentieth-Century Literature. Stanford, Cal., 1992.
  47. Hagemeister M. Die Eroberung des Raums und die Beherrschung der Zeit. Utopische, apokalyptische und magisch-okkulte Elemente in den Zukunftsentwürfen der Sowjetzeit // (Hrsg.) Murašov J.; Witte G. Die Musen der Macht. Medien in der sowjetischen Kultur der 20er und 30er Jahre. München, 2003.
  48. Slapentokh D. Bolshevism as a Fedorovian Regime // Cahiers du Monde russe et soviétique 37 (1996). № 4.
  49. Sm. napr.: Grygar M. Leninizm i bespredmetnost': rozhdenie mifa // Russian Literature 25 (1989) № 3.
  50. Tumarkin N. Lenin zhiv! Kul't Lenina v Sovetskoj Rosii. SPb., 1997.
  51. Ennker B. Die Anfänge des Leninkults in der Sowjetunion. Köln, Weimar, Wien, 1997.
  52. Jampol´skij M. Der feuerfeste Körper. Skizze einer politischen Theologie // Die Musen der Macht. München, 2003.
  53. Murav'ev V. Ovladenie vremenem. M., 1924. S. 105. (Repr.: Mjunhen, 1983).
  54. Murav'ev V. Ovladenie vremenem. M., 1998. S. 275. (Dannoe izdanie otlichaetsja po soderzhaniju ot izdanija 1924 g.)
  55. Probleme preodolenija smerti posvjashhena antologija «Die Neue Menschheit. Biopolitische Utopien in Russland zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts» (Hrsg. von Boris Groys/Michael Hagemeister. Frankfurt a. M., 2005), v osobenosti vvedenie: Michael Hagemeister. «Unser Körper muss unser Werk sein». Beherrschung der Natur und Überwindung des Todes in russischen Projekten des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts..
  56. Williams R. C. The Russian Revolution and the End of Time: 1900–1940 // Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas 43 (1995).
  57. Gjunter H. Apokalipsis i vechnoe vozvrashhenie: vremja-prostranstvo u Andreja Platonova // Pojetika russkoj literatury. Sb. statej. Otv. red. N.D. Tamarchenko. M., 2009.

Galina VARAKINA

Russia, Ryazan.
The Ryazan Correspondence Institute (branch)
of Moscow State University of Culture and Arts,
Professor of the Department of Design,
Doctor of Cultural Studies, Assistant Professor

The Problem of Utopia in the Philosophy of the Russian Renaissance

The article is devoted to the problem of utopia in the Russian religious philosophy of the Silver Age. The research is based on the texts of leading Russian philosophers V. Zenkovsky, N. Berdyaev and S. Franc. The author raises questions about the nature of utopias,in general, about Russian utopias, in particular, and about the correlation of utopia and eschatology. The study proved that the philosophy of the Russian Renaissance is not confined solely to the phenomenon of utopia, and is rather more typical of eschatological thinking.

Key words: utopia, utopianism, eschatology, Russian religious-philosophical Renaissance

References

  1. Zen'kovskij V. V. Cherty utopizma v istorii russkoj mysli//Zen'kovskij V.V. Sobranie sochinenij. T. 1: O russkoj filosofii i literature: Stat'i, ocherki i recenzii (1912–1961) / Sost., podgot. teksta, vstup. st. i primech. O.T. Ermishina. M.: Russkij put', 2008. 448 s.
  2. Zen'kovskij V. Istorija russkoj filosofii. M.: Akademicheskij Proekt, Raritet, 2001.
  3. Berdjaev N. Carstvo Duha i carstvo Kesarja. Gnoseologicheskoe vvedenie//Berdjaev N. Russkaja ideja. Osnovnye problemy russkoj mysli XIX veka i nachala HH veka. Sud'ba Rossii. M.: OOO «Izdatel'stvo V. Shevchuk», 2000.
  4. Berdjaev N. A. Smysl istorii. M., 199.
  5. Berdjaev N. Filosofija svobody//Berdjaev N.A. Sochinenija/Sost., vstup. st. i primech. A.V. Gulygi. M.: «Raritet», 1994.
  6. Berdjaev N. A. Volja k zhizni i volja k kul'ture//Berdjaev N.A. Smysl istorii. M., 1990.
  7. Frank S. Smysl zhizni//Frank S. L. Duhovnye osnovy obshhestva. M.: Respublika, 1992.
  8. Frank S. Krushenie kumirov//Frank S. L. Sochinenija/Vstup. St., sost., podgotovka teksta i primech. Ju. P. Senokosova. M.: Pravda, 1990.
  9. Frank S. L. Eres' utopizma//Sociologicheskie issledovanija. — 1994. — № 1.

Vladimir KANTOR

Russia, Moskow.
The Higher School of Economy.
Philosophical faculty. PhD in Philosophy, professor.
Associate editor of the Philosophy Questions magazine

Insanity as a Reason to Understanding Zamjatin's Contra-Utopian "We"

Zamjatin's novel,"We", is one of the most important works in understanding the intellectual and actual situation of early Soviet Russia. It is also a variation on "The Republic" of Plato. Some say that Zamjatin criticizes the reasonable foundation of Plato's utopia and, "based on Reason", also the Bolshevik dictatorship. According to the author, Zamjatin shows the transformation of reason into it's own opposition – irrational magical power. This power turns people into slaves within a moment, when the call to the reason becomes an invocation, which helps to govern others. Zamjatin struggled against all ideology. The problem isn't only in the understanding of Russia, it isthe system itself — a system of violence — which organizes the world according to the rules of a madhouse. In this madhouse, Reason is nothing more than the ravings of the insane. The western counterpart to this novel is George Orwell's "1984", written according to the paradigm in Zamjatin's novel.

Key words: Zamjatin, Utopia, Contra-Utopia, Plato, reason, magic, irrationalism, Bolshevism, Soviet Russia, the West, Orwell

References

  1. Zamjatin Evg. «Grjadushhaja Rossija» // Zamjatin E. I. Ja bojus'. Literaturnaja kritika. Publicistika. Vospominanija. M.: Nasledie, 1999. S. 60.
  2. Shajtanov Igor'. Master // Voprosy literatury. 1988. № 12.
  3. Shestakov V. P. Jeshatologija i utopija: Ocherki russkoj filosofii i kul'tury. M.: VLADOS, 1995.
  4. Orujell Dzhordzh. Recenzija na «My» E. I. Zamjatina // http://orwell.ru/library/reviews/zamyatin/russian/r_zamy
    http://orwell.ru/library/reviews/zamyatin/russian/r_zamy
  5. Shklovskij Viktor. Potolok Evgenija Zamjatina // Shklovskij V. B. Gamburgskij schet: Stat'i, vospominanija, jesse (1914–1933). M.: Sovetskij pisatel', 1990.
  6. Ujells G. Rossija vo mgle. M.: Gospolitizdat, 1958.
  7. Dostoevskij F. M. Zimnie zametki o letnih vpechatlenijah // Dostoevskij F.M. Poln. sobr. soch. v 30-ti t. T. 5. L.: Nauka, 1973.
  8. Artem'eva T. V. Ot slavnogo proshlogo k svetlomu budushhemu. Filosofija istorii i utopija v Rossii jepohi Prosveshhenija. SPb.: Aletejja, 2005.
  9. Hramov A. Antiutopija i carstvo antihrista v romane Zamjatina «My» // http://www.foru.ru/slovo.3960.1.html
  10. Mil'don V. I. Sanskrit vo l'dah, ili vozvrashhenie iz Ofira. Ocherk russkoj literaturnoj utopii i utopicheskoe soznanie. M.: ROSSPJeN, 2006.
  11. Mor T. Zolotaja kniga, stol' zhe poleznaja, skol' i zabavnaja, o nailuchshem ustrojstve gosudarstva i o novom ostrove UTOPII // Jerazm Rotterdamskij. Vospitanie hristianskogo gosudarja. M: Mysl', 2001.
  12. Sventohovskij A. Istorija utopij. M.: Tipografija V.M. Sablina, 1910.
  13. Solov'ev S. M. Istoricheskie pis'ma // Solov'ev S. M. Soch. V 18-ti knigah. Kn.. XVI. Raboty raznyh let. M.: Mysl', 1995.
  14. Kondakov I. V., Shnejberg L. Ja. Russkaja literatura HH veka. Kn. 1 M.: Novaja volna, 2003.
  15. Shmitt K. Duhovno-istoricheskoe sostojanie sovremennogo parlamentarizma. // Shmitt K. Politicheskaja teologija. M.: KANON-press-C, 2000.
  16. Zamjatin E. Skify li? // Zamjatin E. I. Ja bojus'.
  17. Kant I. Otvet na vopros: chto takoe prosveshhenie? // Kant I. Sochinenija na nemeckom i russkom jazykah. T. 1. M.: kami, 1994.
  18. Averincev S.S. Pohval'noe slovo filologii // Junost'. 1969. № 1.
  19. Zamjatin E. Zavtra // Zamjatin E. I. Ja bojus'.
  20. Chaadaev P. Ja. Filosoficheskie pis'ma // Chaadaev P. Ja. Stat'i i pis'ma. M.: Sovremennik, 1987.
  21. Valentinov N. Dva goda s simvolistami. M.: Izdatel'skij dom XXI vek — Soglasie, 2000.
  22. Chuzhak N. Pisatel'skaja pamjatka // Literatura fakta. Pervyj sbornik materialov rabotnikov LEFa. M.: Zaharov, 2000.
  23. Levidov M. Organizovannoe uproshhenie kul'tury // Levidov M. Prostye istiny (o chitatele, o pisatele). M.-L.: Izdanie avtora, 1927.
  24. Manhejm K. Ideologija i utopija // Manhejm K. Diagnoz nashego vremeni. M.: Jurist, 1994.
  25. Kiseleva M. Robber Muzil': telo i slovo kak sposob poznanija geroev // Voprosy literatury. 2009. № 3.
  26. Shpengler O. Zakat Evropy. Ocherki morfologii mirovoj istorii. T.1 Geshtal't i dejstvitel'nost'. M.: Mysl', 1993.
  27. Arendt H. Ljudi v temnye vremena. M.: Moskovskaja shkola politicheskih issledovanij, 2003.
  28. Shklovskij V. Potolok Evgenija Zamjatina // Shklovskij V.B. Gamburgskij schet: Stat'i, vospominanija, jesse (1914–1933). M.: Sovetskij pisatel', 1990.
  29. Zamjatin E. I. Gerbert Ujells // Zamjatin E. I. Izbr. proizv v 2-h t. T. 2. M.: Hudozh. lit-ra, 1990.
  30. Stepun F. A. Religioznyj smysl revoljucii // Stepun F.A. Zhizn' i tvorchestvo. Izbrannye sochinenija. M.: Astrel', 2009.
  31. Florovskij G. Metafizicheskie predposylki utopizma // Florovskij G. Iz proshlogo russkoj mysli. M.: Agraf, 1998.
  32. Frank S.L. Eres' utopizma // Frank S.L. Po tu storonu pravogo i levogo. Paris: YMCA-Press, 1972.
  33. Kantor V. K. Dostoevskij, Nicshe i krizis hristianstva v Evrope konca XIX — nachala XX veka // Voprosy filosofii. 2002. № 9.

Vyacheslav SHESTAKOV

Russia, Moskow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research.
PhD, professor

Russian Utopias in the Context of English Utopian Tradition

This article focuses on three great utopian writers of the 20th century: George Orwell, Aldous Huxley, and Eugenie Zamjatin, all of whom created contemporary negative utopias, which became extremely popular in literature, political philosophy and futurology. Numerous authors have analyzed the peculiarity of these utopias, trying to discover the role of Russian utopias in utopian world literature, and revive the Russian impact on this literature.

Key words: utopia, anti-utopia, satire, future, catastrophe, totalitarism, hope, foresight

References

  1. Sventohovskij A. Istorija utopij. — M.1910.
  2. Uajl'd O. Sochinenija. V 3-h t., M., 2000. T. 3.
  3. Molnar T. Utopia: The Perennial Heresy. New York, 1972.
  4. Sm. Chistov A.I. Russkie narodnye social'no-utopicheskie legendy. — M. «Nauka», 1967.
  5. Walsh Ch. From Utopia to Nightmare. London. 1962.
  6. Russkaja literaturnaja utopija. / Predislovie i sostavlenie V. P.Shestakova. M, Izd-vo MGU, 1986.
  7. Utopija i antiutopija HH veka. / Predislovie i sostavlenie V. P.Shestakova. M., «Progress», 1990.
  8. Russkaja utopija. / Sostavitel' V. E. Bagno. SPb, 1995.
  9. Ushkov A. V. Utopicheskaja mysl' v stranah Vostoka: Tradicija i sovremennost'. L. 1982.
  10. Batalov Je. Ja. Utopija i utopicheskoe soznanie v SShA. M., 1982.
  11. Paniotova T. S. Utopija v prostranstve dialoga kul'tur. — Rostov/na Donu. 2004.
  12. Kitajskie social'nye utopii. M. 1987.
  13. Gal'ceva R. A.Ocherki russkoj utopicheskoj mysli HH veka. M. 1991.
  14. Frolova I. V. Genezis russkogo utopicheskogo soznanija i puti realizacij russkih utopij. Ufa, 1995.
  15. Suslov M. D. S. F.Sharapov i G. M. Shimanov. Dve social'no-politicheskie utopii v jepohu zakata imperii // Konservatizm na Zapade i v Rossii. Perm', 2005.
  16. Shestakov V. P. Jeshatologija i utopija. Ocherki russkoj filosofii i kul'tury. M., 1995.
  17. Shestakov V. P. Politics and Utopia: Russian Utopian Novels late HIXth-early XXth Centuries. // International Symposium, European University, Florence. 18–19 October, 2007.
  18. Egorov .B. Rossijskie utopii. Istoricheskij putevoditel'. SPB. 2007; Geller L., Nike M. Utopija v Rossii. / Per. s franc. SPB, 2003.
  19. Mil'don V. Sanskrit vo l'dah, ili vozvrashhenie v Ofir. Ocherk russkoj literaturnoj utopii i utopicheskogo soznanija. M., ROSPJeN, 2006.
  20. Shadurskij M. I. Literaturnaja utopija ot Mora do Haksli: problemy zhanrovoj pojetiki i semiosfery. M., 2007.
  21. Baehr S. 'Re-Searching Utopia'.// The Slavic and East European Journal, vol. 42, no. 3. Autumn 1998, P. 517;
  22. Baehr, S. L. The Paradise Myth in Eighteenth-Century Russia. Stanford, 1991.
  23. Besançon, A. 'Fonction du rêve dans le roman russe'// Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique, Vol. 9, no. 3, 1968.
  24. Breuillard, J. 'Fragments d'utopies dans la littérature russe du XVIIIe siècle : Levšin et Xeraskov' // Rev. Etud. slaves, LVI/1, 1984.
  25. Clowes, E. W., Russian Experimental Fiction: Resisting Ideology after Utopia. — Princeton, 1934.
  26. Cooke, B., Human Nature in Utopia: Zamyatin's 'We' // Evanston, IL, 2002.
  27. Faggionato, R., A Rosicrucian Utopia in Eighteenth-Century Russia. The Masonic Circle of N. I. Novikov. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005.
  28. Heller, L. et M. Niqueux, Histoire de l'utopie en Russie. Paris, 1995.
  29. Lukashevich, S. N. F. Fedorov (1828–1903). A Study in Russian Eupsychian and Utopian Though. — Cranbury, NJ, 1977.
  30. Monnier, A. 'Une utopie russe au siècle de Catherine' // Cahiers du monde russe et sovietique, 22/2, 1982.
  31. Paperno, I., Creating Life: The Aesthetic Utopia of Russian Modernism. Stanford, 1994.
  32. Stites, R., 'Fantasy and Revolution. Alexander Bogdanov and the Origins of Bolshevik Science Fiction'// Alexander Bogdanov, Red Star: The First Bolshevik Utopia, Bloomington, 1984.
  33. Stites, R., Revolutionary Dreams, Utopian Vision and Experimental Life in the Russian Revolution, New York, 1989.
  34. Suvin, D., "The Utopian Tradition of Russian Science-Fiction" // The Modern Language Review, Vol. 66, No. 1 (Jan. 1971).

Michail SUSLOV

Russia, Moskow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research, senior researcher fellows.
A visiting researcher at the Uppsala Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies.

The World Reduction Principle in the Slavophiel Utopia of S. F. Sharapov

This article examines the intellectual procedure of imagining a better world in Russian utopias at the turn of the 20th century. Sergei Sharapov's utopias, such as Fifty Years from Now and The Dictator are taken as two such examples. The author argues that reduction, i.e. the radical simplification of an imagined society, prompted Russian utopianism to acquire elements of fundamentalism. This Reductionist worldview rendered utopianism unnecessary, because it discussed the possibility of a non-utopian society, while the grass-roots perception encouraged and motivated socio-political change.

Key words: Russian utopianism, fundamentalism, neo-Slavophilism, S. F. Sharapov

References

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  16. S. F. Sharapov. Diktator. M., 1907.
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  18. S. F. Sharapov. U ochaga hishhenij. M., 1908.
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  20. Bellamy E. Looking Backward, 2000–1887 [1888]. New York, 1996.
  21. Kumar K. Utopia and Anti-Utopia in Modern Times. Oxford, 1987.
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  23. Sharapov S. F. Kruzhnymi putjami. Roman v pjati chastjah. Tret'e izdanie. M., 1901. Sm., takzhe: Sharapov S. F. Rokovoj shag. Dramaticheskij jetjud. M., 1902.
  24. Antonis Laikos. Utopian and Historical Thinking: Interplays and Transferences // Historein. 2007. Vol. 7.
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  30. Habermas J., Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit, (Marburg, 1990), 225.
  31. Tsimbaev N. I., I. S. Aksakov v obshchestvennoi zhizni poreformennoi Rossii, (Moscow, 1978), 180.
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  51. Sharapov S.F. Objazatel'nost' vseobshhego obuchenija // Svidetel'. №33 (mart 1910).
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Alexander LYUSY

Russia, Moscow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research, Seniour Rearcher.
PhD in Cultural Science.

Textual Insomnia and Stylistic Utopianism

This article is about the imaginary ongoing parade of utopias, which began in the first issue of the International Magazine of Research and Culture. In regard to Anatoly Livry's novel, "Apostat" ("Turncoat"), the author talks about utopian sources of language and the text and comes to the conclusion that the Russian-European dialogue, through utopian dimensions, turns into text and genre dialogue. Construction of the utopia text is accompanied by the collection and dispersion of language.

Key words: utopias, possibility of language, catharsis, the text, narcissism, Oedipus complex, epos

References

  1. Rolan Bart. Izbrannye raboty. Semiotika / Per. s fr., vstup. st. i komment. G.K. Kosikova. — M.: Progress, 1989.
  2. Rolan Bart. Izbrannye raboty. Semiotika.
  3. Boldyrev I. A. Vremja utopii: Problematicheskie osnovanija i konteksty filosofii Jersta Bloha. M., 2012.
  4. Dubin B. V. Slovo-pis'mo-literatura. Ocherki po sociologii sovremennoj kul'tury. — M., 2001.
  5. Livri A. Apostat. M., 2012.
  6. Jejzenshtejn S. M. Montazh. M., 1998.
  7. Ljusyj A. P. Pojetika predvoshishhenija: Rossija skvoz' prizmu literatury, literatura skvoz' prizmu kul'turologii. M., 2011.

Lyubov BUGAEVA

Russia, St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg State University, Faculty of Philology. Associate Professor, Ph.D.
St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Institute of Cultural Research. Researcher.

Topos and Telos of St. Petersburg's Utopia: Nikolai Fedorov

The author constructs the semiotic space of the St. Petersburg utopia, taking as an example Nikolai Fedorov's story "An Evening in 2227" (1906). In this space, the real and magical geographies of St. Petersburg are intertwined. N. Fedorov's story echoes E. Bellamy's "Looking Backward: 2000-1887" (1888), and creates, in the St. Petersburg space, a negative image of the future world.

Key words: negative utopia, St. Petersburg, topos, telos

References

  1. Huxley Thomas H. Evolution and Ethics and Other Essays // Project Gutenberg [Jelektronnyj resurs] http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/2940/pg2940.html
  2. Partington John S. The Death of the Static: H.G. Wells and the Kinetic Utopia // Utopian Studies. 2000. No. 11.2. p. 96.
  3. Ujells G. Sovremennaja utopija / Per. s angl. V. Zinov'eva. M.: Knizhnyj Klub Knigovek; SPb.: Severo-Zapad, 2010.
  4. Pustil'nik S. Chisto anglijskaja doktrina. Darvin ili prorok Moisej — tret'ego ne dano // Nezavisimaja gazeta. Prilozhenija. Nauka. 2009-02-11 http://www.ng.ru/science/2009-02-11/13_doktrina.html
  5. Fedorov N. Vecher v 2217 godu // Vecher v 2217 godu / Sost., avt. predisl. i komment. V.P. Shestakov. M.: Progress, 1990. (Utopija i antiutopija HH veka).
  6. Smirnov I. P. Peterburg: gorod mertvyh // Smirnov I.P. Genezis. Filosofskie ocherki po sociokul'turnoj nachinatel'nosti. SPb.: Aletejja, 2006.
  7. Fedorov N. Vecher... v 2217 g. SPb.: Tipo-Litogr. «Gerol'd», 1906.

Larisa NIKIFOROVA

Russia, St. Petersburg.
Herzen State Pedagogical University. Department of theory and history of culture.
PhD in Cultural Research, Professor

The Beehive Metaphor and the Amber Room in Catherine's Palace of Tsarskoye Selo

The "Beehive metaphor" is not the term in the strict sense of the word. The scholars who study the poetics of fiction, the social imagination, iconography and visual culture mostly in interdisciplinary vein created it inadvertently. This concept refers to the various forms of comparison of bee society and human society in positive meaning or in negative one. The Beehive metaphor is the connecting link between the two kinds of Utopia — Utopia addressed to the past (lost golden age) and addressed to the future. The Beehive metaphor is the connecting link between the Utopia and Eutopia: Utopia as the critical reflection of contemporary society and image of changes; Eutopia as a kind of political representation of wisdom and the state cares of real government. In this article I have tried to inscribe the Amber room in the context of Beehive metaphor.

Key words: ideology, metaphor, panegyrics, beehive, utopia, emblematics, Amber room

References

  1. Nikiforova L. V. Steny, «tekushhi mlekom i medom». Jantarnyj kabinet Ekateriniskogo dvorca v Carskom sele // Nikiforova L. V. Chertogi vlasti. Dvorec v prostranstve kul'tury. CPb: Iskusstvo-SPb.
  2. Voronov M. G., Kuchumov A. M. Jantarnaja komnata. L.: 1989.
  3. Jantarnaja komnata // GMZ «Carskoe selo».: http://www.tzar.ru/museums/palaces/c_atherine/amber_room
    http://www.tzar.ru/museums/palaces/c_atherine/amber_room (data obrashhenija: 23.09.2012).
  4. Manhejm K. Ideologija i utopija // Manhejm K. Diagnoz nashego vremeni. M.: Jurist, 1994.
  5. Lokcenij I. Obshhestvo pchel, ili Kratkoe sravnenie pravitel'stva pchel s pravleniem grazhdanskim. SPb.: Tipogr Akademii nauk, 1772. 80 s.
  6. Hollingsworth C. Poetics of the Hive. The Insect Metaphor in Literature. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2001. 298 p.
  7. Ramíres J. A. Beehive Metaphor. From Antonio Gaudi to Le Corbusier. London: Reaction books Ltd, 2000. 184 p.
  8. Shadurskij M. Literaturnaja utopija ot Mora do Haksli: Problemy zhanrovoj pojetiki i semiosfery. Obretenie ostrova. M.: Izd-vo LKI, 2007.
  9. Halifman I. O., Vasil'eva E. N. Pchely. Povst' o biologii pchelinoj sem'i i pobedah nauki o pchelah. M.: Molodaja gvardija, 1981.
  10. Halifman I. O., Vasil'eva E.N. Pchely. M., 1981. S. 33 i dr. (Serija «Jevrika»).
  11. Wilson B. The Hive: The Story of the Honeybee and Us. N-Y: Thomas Dunne Books. St. Martin's Griffin, 2006.
  12. Seeley T. D. Honeybee Democracy Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010. 274 p.
  13. Pogosjan E. Vostorg russkoj ody i reshenie temy pojeta v russkom panegirike 1730–1762 gg. Tartu, 1997.: http://www.ruthenia.ru/document/534639.htmln
    http://www.ruthenia.ru/document/534639.htmln (data obrashhenija: 10.10.2012).
  14. Golicyn F. N. Zapiski. [Predisl. P. I. Barteneva]. Pusskij arhiv. 1874, kn. 1, vyp. 5. Stb. 1318.
  15. Gribovskij A.M. Zapiski o imperatrice Ekaterine Velikoj polkovnika, sostojavshego pri eja osobe stats-sekretarem, Adriana Moiseevicha Gribovskogo. Izd.2-e s dop. M., 1864.
  16. Pchelov E. V. Pchjoly v evropejskoj i russkoj jemblematike i geral'dike // Trudy «Russkoj antropologicheskoj shkoly». Vyp. 10. M.: RGGU, 2012.
  17. Uortman R. Scenarii vlasti. T. 1. M.: OGI, 2004.

Dmitry MARTYNOV

Russia, Kazan.
Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University.
Institute of the Oriental Studies, Ph.D., Assistant Prof.

The Russian Field of the Utopias in the 21st Century

In this article, several utopian texts created by novelists, as well as the studies of philosophers and literary critics in Russia from the years 2000 until 2011 are discussed. The article shows how the philosophical community is divided against Utopias: while liberal-minded scientists try to prove that absolute utopia and utopianism harm the social consciousness, other attempts are made to "justify utopias." The novelists mainly exploited models of communist society, established in 1950s by Ivan Yefremov and the Strugatsky brothers. At the same time, utopian texts are widely used to promote the newly established transhumanist Carian movement.

Key words: utopia, utopianism, transhumanism, carianism, communism, liberalism, Progressors, I. Yefremov, expansion, progress, anarchism, fascism

References

  1. Abdullin R. Z. Osnovnoj zakon chelovechestva. Novaja utopija. Ufa: Ufimskij poligrafkombinat, 2006.
  2. Arab-Ogly Je. A. Utopija i antiutopija // Novaja filosofskaja jenciklopedija v 4 t. Izd. 2-e, dop. / Rukovoditeli proekta V.S. Stepin, G.Ju. Semigin. M.: Mysl', 2010. T. 4.
  3. Bakulov V. D. Utopizm kak prevrashhjonnaja forma vyrazhenija polozhitel'noj utopii // Filosofskie nauki. 2003. №3.
  4. V vihre vremjon: Literaturnyj forum. http://forum.amahrov.ru/
    http://forum.amahrov.ru/
  5. Geller L., Nike M. Utopija v Rossii / Per. s fr. I. V. Bulatovskogo. SPb.: Giperion, 2003.
  6. Egorov B. F. Rossijskie utopii: Istoricheskij putevoditel'. SPb.: Iskusstvo, 2007.
  7. Izmerov O. V. Deti Imperii: Ironicheskaja parodija. http://samlib.ru/i/izmerow_o_w/deti_imperii.shtml
    http://samlib.ru/i/izmerow_o_w/deti_imperii.shtml
  8. Luk'janov A.N. Chjornaja Peshka (Utopija). http://samlib.ru/l/lukxjanow_a_n/blackpawn.shtml
    http://samlib.ru/l/lukxjanow_a_n/blackpawn.shtml
  9. Mil'don V. I. Istorija i utopija kak vidy soznanija // Voprosy filosofii. 2006. №1.
  10. Pervuhin M. Pugachjov — pobeditel': Roman. Ekaterinburg: KROK-Centr, 1994.
  11. Revich V. Perekrjostok utopij. Sud'by fantastiki na fone sudeb strany. M.: In-t vostokovedenija RAN, 1998. http://lib.ru/RUFANT/REWICH/perekrestok.txt
    http://lib.ru/RUFANT/REWICH/perekrestok.txt
  12. Rikjor P. Vremja i rasskaz. T. 1: Intriga i istoricheskij rasskaz / Per. s fr. T. V. Slavko. M.: Universitetskaja kniga, 1998.
  13. Rozoff [Rozov A. A.]. Deportacija. Mini-roman — transutopija. http://www.proza.ru/2008/03/16/6
    http://www.proza.ru/2008/03/16/62
  14. Rozoff [Rozov A. A.]. Neandertal'skij tomagavk v astroarheologii: Roman. http://www.proza.ru/2011/06/11/826
    http://www.proza.ru/2011/06/11/826
  15. Rybakov V. M. Fantastika kak religioznaja literatura // Vjacheslav Rybakov. Oficial'naja stranica: Publicistika.
    http://rusf.ru/rybakov/pages/publ4.html
    http://rusf.ru/rybakov/pages/publ4.html
  16. Tit Livij. Istorija Rima ot osnovanija goroda: T. I. / Red. per. M.L. Gasparov, G.S. Knabe. M.: Nauka, 1989.
  17. Ujells G. Sovremennaja utopija / Per. s angl. V. Zinov'eva. M.: Knizhnyj klub «Knigovek»; SPb.: Severo-Zapad, 2010.
  18. Frolova I. V. Opravdanie utopii: opyt social'no-filosofskoj rekonstrukcii: Monografija. Ufa: Izd-vo Ufimskogo un-ta, 2004.
  19. Haritonov E .V. «Russkoe pole» utopij (Rossija v zerkale utopij HH veka).
    http://www.litsovet.ru/index.php/material.read?material_id=35767
    http://www.litsovet.ru/index.php/material.read?material_id=35767 (Vpervye opublikovano v zhurnale «Esli», 2001, №№ 6, 7, 8)
  20. Hodov A. Igra na vyzhivanie-3: [Roman]. http://samlib.ru/h/hodow_a/aa3.shtml http://samlib.ru/h/hodow_a/aa3.shtml
  21. Hodov A. Igra na vyzhivanie-4: [Roman]. http://samlib.ru/h/hodow_a/aa4.shtml http://samlib.ru/h/hodow_a/aa4.shtml
  22. Chajanov A.V. Puteshestvie moego brata Alekseja v stranu krest'janskoj utopii // Venecianskoe zerkalo: Povesti. M.: Sovremennik, 1989.
  23. Chertkova E. L. Utopizm social'nyj // Novaja filosofskaja jenciklopedija v 4 t. Izd. 2-e, dop. / Rukovoditeli proekta V.S. Stepin, G.Ju. Semigin. M.: Mysl', 2010. T. 4.
  24. Mumford L. The Story of Utopias. N.Y.: Boni and Liveright, 1922.

Concepts of Culture

Vladimir KONEV

Russia, Samara.
Samara State University. The Department of philosophy of humanitarian faculties.
Head of the Department.
PhD in philosophy, professor.

The Time as a material of the social life.
Not IN time, but FROM time

In this article The Time is considerated not as a duration, but rather as a «material», which is the material for the construction of social and cultural life. The hypostasis of the Time such as present, past, future, eternal, and others are discussed in connection with the existence of creations of Culture and of all manifestations of creativity and freedom. The author identifies and describes the productive power of the Time.

Key words: time, suddenly, creativity, creation, values, culture, freedom

Fashion Studies

Dr Djurdja BARTLETT

UK, London.
London College of Fashion, University of the Arts.
Senior Research Fellow

From Artistic Utopia to Mythical Reality: Fashion under Socialism

Fashion became a despised activity immediately after the 1917 Bolshevik revolution, and continued to be ideologically distrusted, since it originated in the West and was part of the rejected bourgeois cultural and commercial heritage. The 1920s constructivist utopia was informed by an urge for a total change in dress and for a total change of the previous gender order. In contrast, fashion was embedded within the Stalinist myth and its general return to history from the 1930s on. As a conventional field of fashion with its market-led activities was abandoned, the concepts of utopia and myth were played out in the field of art. Thus changing aesthetics of dress corresponded to the contemporary artistic expressions. In the utopian phase these included: constructivism, Cubo-Futurism and Russian Art Deco, while Socialist Realism was preferred aesthetics in dress during the mythical period.

Key words: fashion, utopia, myth, art, constructivism, socialist realism

References

  1. Arkin, D. (1925) L'artiste et l'industrie in: L'art décoratif U.R.S.S. Moscou — Paris 1925, Moscow.
  2. Arkin, D. (1929) Estetika veshchi i nasha khudozhestvennaia kul'tura (Aesthetics of Object and Our Artistic Culture), in "Pechat' i revoliutsiia ", n. 4.
  3. Bakshtein, J. (1993) "Notes on the Origin of Socialist Realist Iconography." In Aesthetic arsenal, ed. M. Banks, P.S. 1 Museum.
  4. Bartlett, D. 2010 FashionEast: the Spectre That Haunted Socialism, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
  5. Baudrillard, J. (2005) The system of Objects, Verso, London.
  6. Bowlt, J. (1985) Constructivism and Early Soviet Fashion Design, in Bolshevik culture, eds. G. Abbott, P. Kenez and R. Stites, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
  7. Carr, E.H. (1970) Socialism in One Country, 1924–1926, Penguin, Harmondsworth
  8. Dobrenko, E. (2007) Political Economy of Socialist Realism, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
  9. Douglas, C. (2000) Six (and a few more) Russian women of the avant-garde together in Amazons of the avant-garde, eds. J. Bowlt, M. Drutt and Z. Tregulova, Guggenheim Museum, New York.
  10. Ekster, A. (1923a) V konstruktivnoi odezhde (On the construction of dress), in "Atel'e", n. 1.
  11. Ekster, A. (1923b) Prostota i praktichnost' v odezhde (Simplicity and practicality of dress), "Krasnaia Niva", n. 21, p. 31
  12. Ekster, A. (1923c) V poiskakh novoi odezhdy (In search of new dress), in "Vserossiiskaia vystavka (All-Russian Exhibition)", n 2.
  13. Lamanova, N. (1924) O sovremennom kostiume (On Contemporary Dress), "Krasnaia niva", n 27.
  14. Lamanova, N. (1926) O kostiume (On Dress), in "Zhenskii zhurnal", n 1, p 16.
  15. Lavrentiev, A. (1988) Varvara Stepanova: A Constructivist Life, Thames and Hudson, London.
  16. Lavrentiev, A. (2005) Aleksandr Rodchenko, The Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  17. Mass, V. (1922) Pankrasi levogo fronta, in "Zrelishcha", n 10.
  18. Mindlin, M. (1922) O priamoi, ob evoliutsii pidzhaka i o stile v RSFSR (On straight line, the evolution of the jacket and the style of RSFSR), in "Zrelishcha", n 8.
  19. Misler, N. (1987) " 'La Scienza' dell' abbigliamento dall'atelier all'industria ", in: L'Abito della rivoluzione, eds. Lidya Zaletova, Fabio Ciofi degli Atti and Franco Panzini, Marsilio, Venezia.
  20. Richard M. (1998) Cubism and Fashion, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  21. Rodchenko, A. (1921) Liniia (Line), MS, Rodchenko Family Archive, Moscow/
  22. Stepanova, V. (Varst) (1923), Kostium segodniashnego dnia — prozodezhda (Today's clothing: Prozodezhda), in "LEF", n. 2.
  23. Strizhenova. T. (1979) Moda e rivoluzione, Electa Editrice, Milano.
  24. Tugendkhol'd, I. 1922. Alexandra Exter, Sarja Edition, Berlin.
  25. Tugendkhol'd, I. (1925a) Stil' 1925 goda. Mezhdunarodnaia vystavka v Parizhe (The 1925 style: The Paris international exhibition), in "Pechat' i revoliutsiia ", n 7.
  26. Tugendkhol'd, I. (1925b) L'Élément national dans l'art de l'U.S.S.R., in L'art décoratif U.R.S.S. Moscou — Paris 1925, Moscow.

Media Studies

Valery SAVCHUK

Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg State University. Faculty of Philosophy.
Department of Ontology and the Theory of Knowledge. PhD, Professor.

The Fence as a Kind of Media

ZThe concept of the fence may be found in the earliest origins of culture. It is closely associated with the opposition of culture and nature, the sacred and the profane, the center and the periphery, internal and external, natural and artificial. It's also a typical example of the media. Divided -- it connects; limiting visibility -- it shows us a societal condition, the degree of dissociation or human solidarity. In this work, a fence is thematised as a typical example of media. An important issue is the relationship between the concepts of a fence and a border, a fence and the order of things.

Key words: culture source, fence, enclosure, media, media analysis, Garden of Eden, semetery

References

  1. Toporov V. N. Tekst goroda-devy i goroda-bludnicy v mifologicheskom aspekte // Issledovanija po strukture teksta / Otv. red. T. V. Civ'jan. M.: Nauka, 1987.
  2. Grjakalov N. A. K politicheskoj antropologii sfer // Russkaja filosofija segodnja: ob iskusstve i politike / red. Aleksandra Vranesh; red.-sost. Kornelija Ichin. Belgrad, 2012.
  3. Holmogorov E. S. Za Evraziju bez evrazijcev // http://www.katehon.ru/html/top/politologia/russkije_za_evraziju.htm (data obrashhenija: 10.08.2012).
  4. József A. Tillmann Gartenlaborarische Gegenwart // Neue Pester Lloyd. Eine deutschsprachige Wochenzeitung. 1995. № 38/39. S. 7).
  5. Klark K. Pejzazh v iskusstve, s. 291.
  6. Nikitin A. Hozhdenie za tri morja Afanasija Nikitina 1406–1472 gg. / pod red. S. N. Kumkes; sost. I. G. Veritje; per. N. S. Chaeva. M.: Geografgiz, 1960.
  7. Revzin G. I. Ocherki po filosofii arhitekturnoj formy. M.: OGI, 2002.
  8. Frejdenberg O. M. Pojetika sjuzheta i zhanra. M.: Labirint, 1997.
  9. Delez Zh. Skladka. Lejbnic i barokko. M.: Logos, 1998.
  10. Revzin G. Ocherk po filosofii arhitekturnoj formy. M.: OGI, 2002, s. 39.
  11. Smirnov I. P. Hlam tekstov (Musor, jemocii i filosofija) // http://www.ruthenia.ru/logos/number/1999_02/1999_2_13.htm (data obrashhenija: 29.02.12).
  12. Kule K. SMI v Drevnej Grecii: sochinenija, rechi, razyskanija, puteshestvija… / per. s fr. S. V. Kullandy. M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2004.
  13. Stepanov E. Korotkie rasskazy. // Kreshhatik. 2011. № 3.

Film Studies

Kirill RAZLOGOV

Russia, Moskow.
Russian Institute for Cultural Research. Director.
PhD. Head of the Editorial Council of International Journal of Cultural Research.

Utopia and Dystopia in World Cinema

Utopian mentality has manifested itself on screen in different national cinemas and a variety of genre symbioses. The article follows the transformations of film utopias from Journey to the Moon by Georges Melies or Fritz Lang's Metropolis to the newest variations of Lord of the Rings or Star Wars, including periodic shifts to dystopias and back to the classic utopias. Particular attention is given to utopian constructions in fundamentally political films in Russia ("Aelita" by Jacob Protazanov) as well as abroad (several adaptations of George Orwell's "1984").

Key words: utopia, dystopia, cinema, political film, fairy tale, fantasy, robots, Star Wars, horror film

Olga KIRILLOVA

Ukraine, Kiev.
National Pedagogical University named after M. P. Dragomanov.
The Department of cultural science. PhD in philosophy, senior lecturer.

The Idealistic and Tanatological Topology of Kiev Film Text

TThe article focuses on the definition of Kiev Film Text and its set of characteristics: binarity, idealization, censure, anonymity, impersonalism contradiction with sets, peak regime, and life and death co-existence. The most important of these films, such as "The Days of the Turbins" by V. Basov; "Notes of the Snub Mephisto" by O. Biyma; "Police Spy" and "Birds of Paradise" by R. Balayan; "By Bulgakov", "Sounds of the Wind" and "Like Hell" by S. Masloboyschikov; "The Guide" by A. Shapiro; and "Enamoured in Kiev" (almanac), are analyzed through the prism of the local Kiev Film Text concept, explored in works by M. Petrovsky, V. Menzhulin, A. Lyusyy and S. Cherepanov. The co-ordinate system and chronotope in this Kiev Film Text is defined by the polarized topoi of the idyllic and 'thanathical'.

Key words: Kiev Film Text, utopia, idyll, representative film text, outer optics, sacral dominants, anonymity, nonlinearity, difference, the Unique

References

  1. Ljusyj A. Personazh vzgljada. (Rec. na kn.: Sneg na bolote: roman. — SPb.: Aletejja, 2010).// «Druzhba Narodov», 2011, №7.
  2. Dacjuk S. «Stol'nyj grad Kiev»: materialy seminara «Gorod Kiev v XXI veke», sostojavshegosja v Pushhe-Vodice 30 oktjabrja — 1 nojabrja 1998 goda. [Jelektronnyj resurs]: URL: http://xyz.org.ua/xyz/discussion/grad_kiev.html (dekabr', 2012).
  3. Polіshhuk Ja. Kiїv jak lokus kul'turnoї pam'jatі: dosvіd novіtn'oї lіteraturi. // Vіsnik LNU іmenі Tarasa Shevchenka, 2010, № 20 (207),Ch. ІІІ. S.100.
  4. Cherepanov S. Gorodomor. // Raduga : Zhurnal hudozhestvennoj literatury i obshhestvennoj mysli. 2008. № 4.
  5. Menzhulin V. K voprosu o kievskom hronotope, ili kak possorilis' Isaak Moiseevich s Ivanom Alekseevichem i chto jeto dalo L'vu Isaakovichu s Igorem Ivanovichem. // Aktual'nі problemi duhovnostі: Zbіrka naukovih prac'. DVNZ «KNU», 2012. Vyp. 13.
  6. Petrovskij M. Master i Gorod: Kievskie konteksty Mihaila Bulgakova. Izd. 2-e, isprav. i dop. SPb, 2008.
  7. Kirillova O. Viva Viktorija ili Slava Pobede. Gl. 12. // Serp holodnoj luny: rekonstrukcii modelej chuvstvennosti. SPb: Aletejja, 2010.
  8. Lakan Zh. Seminary. Kniga 20: Eshhjo (1972-72). M: Gnozis/Logos, 2011.
  9. Sm.: Herbrechter S. "Plus d'un — Deconstruction and the Translation of Cultural Studies" // Culture Machine: special issue on Cultural Studies and Deconstruction. 2004. №6.

Book Reviews

Anna KONEVA

Russia, St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Institute of Cultural Research.
Head of department. PhD in philosophy, senior lecturer.

The Fashion Narratives of Socialism

This article analyzes Djurdja Bartlett's book, "FashionEast: The Spectre, that Haunted Socialism". The article deals with a selection of Bartlett's fashion narratives. The point of view expressed is the concept of the collective imagination, which provides an opportunitiy to perceive fashion as an ideological and imaginary phenomenon. The article also deals with the phenomenon of mods (hipsters), which could be one of the subjects of this book. Perhaps, in this specific case, the author could have shown the contradictory essence of socialist fashion more distinctly.

Key words: fashion, socialism, fashion narrative, imaginary

References

  1. Anholt S. Places. Identity, Image and Reputation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
  2. Gimeno Martinez J. Fashion, Country and City: The Fashion Industry and the Constraction of Collective Identities (1981–2000). Antwerpen, MoMu, 2008.
  3. Teunissen J. (ed.) Global Fashion, Local Tradition. Arnheim, 2005.
  4. Breward Ch., Conekin B., Cox C. (eds.) The Englishness of English Dress. Oxford, 2002.
  5. Craik J. Australian Fashion and Dress Distinctively Australian? // Fashion Theory: the Journal of Dress, Body and Culture. 2009. Vol.13.
  6. Goodrom A. Thr National Fabric: Fashion, Britishness, Globalization. Oxford, 2005.
  7. Martin-Chauffier G. Une vraie Parisienne. Paris, 2007.
  8. Palmer A. (ed.) Fashion: A Canadian Perspective. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.
  9. Rocamora A. Fashionning the City. London, 2009.
  10. Teunissen J. Mode in Nederland. Arnheim: Terra, 2006.
  11. White N. Reconstracting Italian Fashion. Oxford: Berg, 2000.
  12. Goodrom A. Thr National Fabric: Fashion, Britishness, Globalization. Oxford, 2005.
  13. Rot-Aj K. Kto na p#edestale, a kto v tolpe? Stiljagi i ideja sovetskoj «molodezhnoj kul'tury» v period «ottepeli». // Neprikosnovennyj zapas, 2004, № 4 (36).: http://magazines.russ.ru/nz/2004/4/ra4.html (data obrashhenija 13.12.12).
  14. Geldern J. von, Stites R. (Eds.).Mass Culture in Soviet Russia: Tales, Poems, Songs, Movies, Plays, and Folklore, 1917–1953. Bloomington, 1995. P. xxv.
  15. Nujkin A. Stiljaga li Vladimir Tokarev? // Komsomol'skaja pravda. 5 aprelja 1958 g. Cit. po Rot-Aj K. Uk. soch.
  16. Rafikova S. Sibirskij stiljaga. // Rodina, 2010, № 9.: http://www.istrodina.com/rodina_articul.php3?id=3713&n=163 (data obrashhenija: 13.12.12).

Francisca FOORTAI

Russia, St. Petersburg.
Leningrad State University n. a. A. S. Pushkin.
PhD in Art History, Associate Professor.

The Scope (Summa) about "Florentine and the Innocent Exile".
Reflections about the Book "Dante Alighieri: Pro et Contra"

The current global situation is such that it is impossible to imagine any one culture that does not interact with others. The role of phenomena reflecting the spiritual dynamics of Russian culture may be found in historical events, social ideas, mythology and philosophical currents.
The article focuses on the image of the modern perspective, dedicated to the great Italian, Dante Alighieri, whose fate and multifaceted creativity are widely depicted in Russian artistic culture.

Key words: Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy, anthology, chronotop, meta culture, quasi gothic, gothic tides, mental harmony

References

  1. Bashljar Gaston. Pojetika prostranstva//Izbrannoe: Pojetika prostranstva. Moskva: Rosspjen, 2004. S. 22. Eshhe do jetogo termin «topofilija» byl ispol'zovan U. H. Odenom v predislovii k knige Dzhona Betzhemana (Betjeman, John. Slick but not Streamlined. Garden City N.Y.: Doubleday, 1947).
  2. Dante Alig'eri: pro et contra. / Sost., vstup. stat'ja M. S. Samarina, I. Ju. Shaub, komment. M. S. Samarina, V. V. Andersen, K. S.Landa, I. Ju. Shaub. SPb.: RHGA, 2011, 976 s. M. P. Alekseev. Pervoe znakomstvo s Dante v Rossii. // Sb. «Ot klassicizma k romantizmu. Iz istorii mezhdunarodnyh svjazej russkoj literatury». L.: Nauka, 1970.
 

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