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# 1(14) 2014: Political Culture: Typologies and Development Factors
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Topic of the Issue

Grigorii TULCHINSKII

Russia, St. Petersburg
National Research University High School Economics
Professor Dept. Applied Political Theory, PhD, professor

Political Cultures: the Problem of Studying and Typologies

The article explains the limitations of the traditional understanding of political culture. There are shown the possibility of applying experience studying business cultures to the analysis of political cultures. Value-normative model allows to generalize societal and mental approaches and to obtain an operational methodology of comparative analysis of political cultures.

Key words:: business culture, freedom, institutions, justice, norms, political culture, security, values.

References

  1. Almond G. A. , Verba S. Grazhdanskaja kul'tura. Podhod k izucheniju politicheskoj kul'tury. (I). //Politija, № 2 (57) 2010, S. 122–144.
  2. Veber M. Protestantskaja jetika i duh kapitalizma. //Veber M. Izbrannye proizvedenija. — M. , 1990.
  3. Inglhart R. , Vel'cel' K. Modernizacija, kul'turnye izmenenija i demokratija. M. : Novoe izdatel'stvo, 2011.
  4. Kameron K. , Kuinn R. Diagnostika i izmenenie organizacionnoj kul'tury. — SPb. , 2001. URL: http://corpculture. ru/content/tipologiya-korporativnykh-kultur-k-kamerona-i-r-kuinna
  5. Terent'eva V. I. , Tul'chinskij G. L. Brend-integrirovannyj menedzhment. M. : Vershina, 2007.
  6. Tul'chinskij G. L. Politicheskaja kul'tura kak resurs i bar'er razvitija rossijskogo obshhestva. // Rossija: tendencii i perspektivy razvitija. Ezhegodnik. Vyp. 7, Chast' II. M. : INION RAN, 2012, s. 395–401.
  7. Tul'chinskij G. L. Politicheskaja kul'tura na osjah cennostno normativnoj modeli sociogeneza. // Filosofskie nauki. 2013, № 1, s. 24–38
  8. Tul'chinskij G. L. Sovremennye faktory kul'turogeneza. // Kul'turologicheskie chtenija. Nauchno-teoreticheskij al'manah. I. SPb: SPb GU, 2005, s. 123–128.
  9. Shihirev P. N. Vvedenie v rossijskuju delovuju kul'turu. — M. 2000.
  10. Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publication, 2001
  11. Almond G. Comparative Political Systems // Journal of Politics. 1956. Vol. 18. No. 3. P. 396.
  12. Hofstede G. Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. 2nd Edition, Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications, 2001; URL: http:// www. geert-hofstede. com/geert-hofstede_resources. shtml
  13. Hofstede G. , Hofstede G. J. , Michael Minkov M. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill USA, 2010; URL: http:// www. geert- hofstede. com/geert-hofstede_resources. shtml
  14. Lewis R. D. When Cultures Collide. Leading across cultures. Boston-London:Nicolas Brealy Intern. , 2012.
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Sergey AKOPOV

Russia, St. Petersburg
National Research University High School Economics
Dept. Applied Political Theory, PhD, professor

"Transnational Political Culture": Towards the New Subjectivity

The research of elements of supranational and cross-national in modern political culture involves identifying new characteristics of subjectivity, per se those who carry out specific supranational political consciousness, experience and practices. This article is targeted towards the search and description of the new subjects of transnational political culture in the modern world. Therefore it includes analysis of the three groups: transnational migrants ("transmigrants"), contemporary "global nomads" and "transnational intellectuals".

Key words: political culture, transnational, transmigrants, global nomads, transnational intellectuals.

References

  1. Akopov S.V. Razvitie idei transnacionalizma v rossijskoj politicheskoj filosofii XX veka., SPb., Izd-vo SZI RANHiGS, 2013.
  2. Giddens Je. Uskol'zajushhij mir Kak globalizacija menjaet nashu zhizn'. M., 2004.
  3. Malinova O.Ju. Transformacija publichnoj sfery i dinamika idejno-simvolicheskogo prostranstva v Rossii (konec XX — nachalo XIX v.) / Idejno-simvolicheskoe prostranstvo postsovetskoj Rossii: dinamika, institucional'naja sreda, aktory. / Pod. red. O.Ju. Malinovoj. M.: Rossijskaja associacija politicheskoj nauki (RAPN); Rossijskaja politicheskaja jenciklopedija (ROSSPJeN), 2011. S. 259–283.
  4. Mamchic R. Rodezijskaja vojna v Antarktide / Chastnyj Korrespondent, 28 avgusta 2010 goda. Rezhim dostupa: http://www.chaskor.ru/article/rodezijskaya_vojna_v_antarktide_19367 (Data obrashhenija: 12.04.2013)
  5. Rosdjejl F. Nasha osnovnaja zadacha — sdelat' mir nadezhnym. 31 janvarja 2008. Rezhim dostupa: http://secondlife.ru/?act=interviewid=211. (Data obrashhenija: 12.04.2013)
  6. Russkoe prisutstvie v Britanii. Sost. N.V. Makarova, O.A. Morgunova. M.: Sovremennaja jekonomika i pravo, 2009.
  7. Semenenko I.S. Politicheskaja nacija, nacional'noe gosudarstvo i grazhdanskaja identichnost': na puti v global'nyj mir // Politicheskaja identichnost' i politika identichnosti. v 2 t. T.1: Identichnost' kak kategorijapoliticheskoj nauki: slovar' terminov i ponjatij. M.: Rossijskaja politicheskaja jenciklopedija (ROSSPJeN), 2012.
  8. Sorokin P.A. Chelovek. Civilizacija. Obshhestvo. M., 1992.
  9. Sungurov A.Ju. «Fabriki mysli»: pervoe priblizhenie k analizu zarubezhnogo opyta/ «Fabriki mysli» i centry publichnoj politiki: mezhdunarodnyj i pervyj rossijskij opyt. SPb., 2002. S.55–70.
  10. Tul'chinskij G.L. Lichnost' kak proekt i brend. // Nauka televidenie. Vyp.8, M., 2011. S.250–265.
  11. Jepshtejn M.N. Universika: na puti k kriticheskoj universal'nosti / Znak probela: O budushhem gumanitarnyh nauk. M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2004. S. 635– 651.
  12. Akopov S., Russian identity after the fall of the USSR. From generation "P" to generation "T" ("Transnational")? // Russia's Changing Economic and Political Regimes., Ed. by A.Makarychev, A.Mommen, Routledge, 2013. Pp.66–76.
  13. Calhoun G. The Class Consciousness of Frequent Travelers. Toward a Critique of Actually Existing Cosmopolitanism // South Atlantic Quarterly. 2002. 101(4). Pp. 872–873.
  14. Flores J. The Diaspora Strikes Back: Caribeño Tales of Learning and Turning. NY. 2009.
  15. Haas P. Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination // International Organization.1992. Vol. 46. No. 1.P.1–35
  16. Herman S. Taking Liberties: The War on Terror and the Erosion of American Democracy. Oxford, 2011. P. 3–4, 153–155.
  17. Kannisto P., Kannisto S. Free as a Global Nomad: An Old Tradition with a Modern Twist. Phoenix. 2012.
  18. Lynn S. Transborder Lives: Indigenous Oaxacans in Mexico, California, and Oregon. Durham. 2007.
  19. Madalina A. Study Abroad and Cultural Learning Through Fulbright and Other International Scholarships: A Holistic Student Development // Journal of International Students Spring 2013 Vol. 3 Issue 1, P.1–9.
  20. Nason D. Wirtland Evolves as First Country in Cyberspace / Internet Evolution, January 21, 2009. Rezhim dostupa: http: // www.internetevolution.com/author.asp? section_id=694doc_id=170678. (Data obrashhenija: 12.04.2013)
  21. Nye J., Keohane R. Transnational Relations and World Politics: An Introduction. / International Organization. Vol. 25. No. 3 (summer 1971). P. 329–349.
  22. Pollack D., Van Reken R. Third Culture Kids: The Experience of Growing Up Among Worlds. Yarmouth, 2001.
  23. Rethinking Transnationalism. The Meso-link of organizations. / ed. by L.Pries. London: Routledge, 2008.
  24. Ryan J., Dunford G., Sellars S. Micronations. / Lonely Planet, 2006.
  25. Schiller N., Fouron G. Georges Woke Up Laughing: Long Distance Nationalism and the Apparent State. Durham. 2003.
  26. Stöcker C. Interview with Second Life Founder Rosedale: Making it Crash Less Is our Number One Mission / Der Spiegel. January 31, 2008. Rezhim dostupa: http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/interview-with-second-life-founder-rosedale-making-it-crash-less-is-our-number-one-mission-a-531700.html. (Data obrashhenija: 12.04.2013.)
  27. The Political Representation of Immigrants and Minorities. Voters, Parties and Parliaments in Liberal Democracies. / Bird K., Saalfeld T., M. Wüst A. (Eds.). NY. 2010.
  28. Vertovec S. Transnationalism. London, Routledge, 2009.
  29. Zurawski N. Virtual Ethnicity: Studies on Identity, Cultural and the Internet. 1998. Rezhim dostupa: http://www.uni-muenster.de/PeaCon/zurawski/veengl.html. (Data obrashhenija 03.02.2012.)
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Valentina FEDOTOVA

Russia, Moskow
Institute of Philosophy of Russian Academy of Sciences
Ph.D, Professor, Academician of the Russian academy of natural sciences
Chief Researcher (Principal research scientist)
Head of the scientific school of "Social Philosophy and Building Civil Society in Russia"

Three Types of Relation to the Politics: Pre-political, Political and Post-political Culture

The author examines two concepts of political cultures — these are, on the one hand, the cultural sociological theory of political performance by J. Alexander, and the theory of power balance by G. Almond and S. Verba, on the other. Both value and cognitive prerequisites of these concepts are revealed. The author distinguishes the two types of concepts — the constructionist concept of J. Alexander and a more objectivistic naturalistic essentialist viewpoint of Almond and Verba. Potential of the joint application of these concepts is discussed. The importance of simultaneous use of naturalistic essentialism and constructionism in the formation of civic political culture is demonstrated. The prospects of building democratic political culture and civil society in the countries in transition are analyzed. The mechanisms of the value and cognitive change, role of the «soft power», media and the Internet, prospects for employment of the balance of power concept in building democracy and civil society in Russia are discussed. The author characterizes the pre-political, political and post-political cultures and argues that it is wrong both not to distinguish between these cultures and to interpret the pre-political and post-political cultures as political.

Key words: politics, performance, ideology, soft power, value transformations, cognitive changes, balance of power, types of political culture, constructionism, naturalistic essentialism, pre-political, political, post-political cultures.

References

  1. Alexander J.C. Performance and Power. Cambridge, Malden: Polity Press. 2011. C. 20–21.
  2. Alexander J, Performative Revolution in Egypt: An Essay in Cultural Power. N. Y.: Bloomsbury cademic.2011.
  3. Schmidt M.G. Political Performance and Types of Democracy: Findings from Comparative Studies// European Journal for Political Research. 2012. № 41. P. 147–163 .
  4. Shmitt K. Ponjatie politicheskogo// Voprosy sociologii. 1992. T.1. № 1. S. 60.
  5. Fedotova V.G., Kolpakov V.A., Fedotova N.N. Global'nyj kapitalizm: Tri velikie transformacii. Social'no-filosofskij analiz vzaimootnoshenij jekonomiki i obshhestva. M.: Kul'turnaja revoljucija. 2008. S. 536–565.
  6. Fedotova V.G. Performans i politika// Voprosy kul'turologi. 2013. № 6.
  7. Nye J. The Paradox of American Power. Why the World's Only Superpower Can't Go It Alone. N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2002. P. 8–9 .
  8. Joffe J. How America Does //Foreign Affairs. September/October 1997. P. 83.
  9. Ferguson N. Think Again: Power//Foreign Policy. January/February 2003. P. 48–49.
  10. Fedotova V.G. Horoshee obshhestvo. M.: Progress-Tradicija. 2005.
  11. Alexander J.C. The Performance of Politics: Obama's Victory and the Democratic Struggle for Power. Print ISBN-13: 9780199744466: Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May-12 2010.
  12. Alexajnder J. Performative Revolution in Egypt: An Essay in Cultural Power. L., N.Y.: Bloomsbury Academy. 2011. P. X.
  13. Hobsbaum E. Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Manchester.Passim.1959. P. 2–3.
  14. Fedotova V.G. Arhaizacija v sovremennom mire // Filosofskie Nauki. 2012. № 5.
  15. Schmidt M.G. Political Performance and Types of Democracy. R. 148.
  16. Lejphart A. Demokratija v mnogosostavnyh obshhestvah. Sravnitel'nye issledovanija. M.: Aspkekt Press.1997.
  17. Berger P., Lukman T. Social'noe konstruirovanie real'nosti. Traktat po sociologii znanija. M: Medium. 2004. S. 31–72;
  18. Pokrovskij N.E. Problema anomii v sovremennom obshhestve. M.: MGIMO. 1995. S. 422–457.
  19. Fedotova V.G., Kolpakov V.A., Fedotova N.N. Tri velikie transformacii. Social'no-filosofskij analiz vzaimootnoshenij jekonomiki i obshhestva. M.: Kul'turnaja revoljucija. 2009.
  20. Mikeshina L.A. Jepistemologija cennostej. M.: Rosspjen. 2007. S. 151.
  21. Wagner P. Sociology of Modernity: Liberty and Discipline. L., N. Y.: Routledge. 1994. P. 31–72.
  22. Sulkunen P. The Saturated Society. Governing Risk and Lifestiles in Consumer Cultures. Los Angeles, L., New Delhi, Singapor, Washington: Sage, 2010.
  23. Bauman Z. Globalizacija. Posledstvija dlja cheloveka i obshhestva. M.: Ves' mir, 2004. S. 120.
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Vladimir SHEVCHENKO

Russia, Moskow
Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences
Dr, Prof. Leading Staff Scientist

From National Consensus to Modern Political Culture: A Factor of Public Philosophy

Public philosophy plays its part in society as a mediator between academic philosophy and ideological views of different political movements and parties, as is shown in the article. The importance of public philosophy in modern Russia for gaining national consensus concerning the key questions of Russia's development is emphasized. The author concludes that national consensus is sine qua non for creating a modern political culture in Russian society.

Key words: public, academic philosophy, the purpose of philosophy, public philosophy, political culture, politology, political party, national consensus, ideology.

References

  1. Buravoj M. Za publichnuju sociologiju / Obshhestvennaja rol' sociologii. Pod red.Romanova P. i Jarskoj-Smirnovoj E. — M., 2008. S.18–21.
  2. Akkermann F., Akkermann Ja., Littke A., Nisser Zh., Tomann Ju. Prikladnaja istorija ili publichnoe izmerenie proshlogo / Neprikosnovennyj zapas, 2012, №3 (83). — S.242.
  3. Lipman U. Publichnaja filosofija. — M., 2004. S. 90.
  4. Gusejnov A.A. «O naznachenii filosofii» / Filosofija i istorija filosofii. K 90-letiju akad. T.I.Ojzermana. — M.: 2005. — S.94.
  5. Podoroga V.A. O chem sprashivajut, kogda sprashivajut «Chto takoe filosofija» // Filosofskij zhurnal, 2009, №1 (2). — S. 10.
  6. Gusejnov A.A. Vystuplenie v diskussii // Filosofskij zhurnal, 2009, №1 (2). — S.17.
  7. Marks K., Jengel's F. Soch. T. 3. — S. 4.
  8. Shevchenko V.N. Rossijskoe gosudarstvo: sovremennye diskussii v nauke i za ee predelami // Filosofskie nauki, 2013, №7. — S. 5–22.
  9. Plotnikov N.S. Rekonfiguracija publichnogo prostranstva / Russkij zhurnal. 27.10.2011. http://www.perspektivy.info/misl/cenn/rekonfiguracija_publichnogo_prostranstva_2011–11–25.htm
  10. Alekseeva T.A. Nekotorye soobrazhenija o predmetnoj oblasti politologicheskih disciplin. // Filosofija politiki i prava: Sb. nauchnyh rabot. Vyp.2. Pod obshhej red. E.N.Moshhelkova. — M.: 2011. — S.123.
  11. Mezhuev V.M. Istorija, civilizacija, kul'tura. Opyt filosofskogo istolkovanija. — SPb. 2011. — S.385.
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Elena YARKOVA

Russia, Tyumen
Tyumen State University, Department of the Philosophy.
Ph. D, Professor

Political and Legal Culture of the Society in the Projection Methodology Ideal Typing

The article is devoted to the typological analysis of political and legal culture as a value-semantic system. The author distinguishes three types of political and legal culture — traditional, utilitarian, creative. In understanding the sources and nature of the State and law, legal-political traditionalism stems from the ideological principles of «kosmocentrism» or «theocentrism». State and law considered as external to the person, the higher powers. Utilitarianism understanding of the sources and the nature of the State and the law is based on the principles of «sociocentrism» and «anthropocentrism», claiming the idea of popular sovereignty that defines people as creator and owner of any power, and man as the creator of the law. Creative political and legal culture «taking off» position of theocentrism and kosmocentrism, sociocentrism and anthropocentrism claims ideological principle of dialogism, according to which the core and basis of the legal and political aspects of society is dialogue -interpersonal communication. The typological triad is seen as a tool to analyze the political and legal aspects of society.

Key words: political and legal culture, the ideal typing, society, traditionalism, utilitarianism, sreativism, state, dominion, right, freedom, justice.

References

  1. Veber M. Issledovanija po metodologii nauk. — M., 1980.
  2. Poslanija Filofeja. Poslanie k velikomu knjazju Vasiliju ob ispravlenii krestnogo znamenija i o sodomskom blude//PLDR, konec XV — nachalo XVIvv. — M.,1984.
  3. Lur'e Ja. S. Kratkaja redakcija "Ustava" Iosifa Volockogo — pamjatnik ideologii rannego iosifljanstva // TODRL, XII. M.—L., 1956.
  4. Mironov B.N. Social'naja istorija Rossii perioda imperii (XVIII-nachalo XX v.): Genezis lichnosti, demokraticheskoj sem'i, grazhdanskogo obshhestva i pravovogo gosudarstva. T. 1. — SPb.,1999.
  5. Ahiezer A.S. Rossija: kritika istoricheskogo opyta. (Sociokul'turnaja dinamika Rossii). — T.2. Teorija i metodologija. Slovar'. — Novosibirsk, 1998.
  6. Mify narodov mira. Jenciklopedija v 2-h t. T.2. — M., 1994.
  7. Solov'ev V. S. Opravdanie dobra. — M., 1996.
  8. Kireevskij I.V. Kritika i jestetika. — M., 1979.
  9. Poslovicy i pogovorki russkogo naroda. Iz sbornika V.I. Dalja. — M., 1987.
  10. Hospers, J. The Libertarian Manifesto // Justice. Alternative Political Perspectives. 3-d Ed. /Ed. by Sterba, J. Belmont etc.: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1990.
  11. Il'in I.A. O formal'noj demokratii.// Il'in I.A. O grjadushhej Rossii: izbrannye stat'i. M., 1993.
  12. Vernadskij V.I. Zhivoe veshhestvo i biosfera. M., 1990
  13. Florida R. Kreativnyj klass: ljudi, kotorye menjajut budushhee. M., 2007.
  14. Jaspers K. Vernunft und Existenz. Groningen, 1935.
  15. Habermas J. Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. — Frankfurt a/M., 1981. Bd. 1.
  16. Toffler A. Futuroshok. — SPb., 1997.
  17. Il'in I.A. Predposylki tvorcheskoj demokratii // Il'in I. A. Nashi zadachi. T. 2. — M., 1992.
  18. Denezhkin A. «Faktichnost' i znachimost'» Ju. Habermasa: novye issledovanija po teorii prava i demokraticheskogo pravovogo gosudarstva // Habermas Ju. Demokratija. Razum. Nravstvennost'. — M., 1995.
  19. Jarkova E.N. Istorija i metodologija juridicheskoj nauki. — Tjumen', 2012.
  20. Kas'janov V.V., Nechipurenko V.N. Sociologija prava.- Rostov na Donu, 2001.
  21. Habermas J. Faktizitat und Geltung. Beitrage zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und demokratischen Rechtsstaats. — Frankfurt a/M., 1991.
  22. Ljendri Ch. Kreativnyj gorod. — M., 2011.
  23. Tul'chinskij G.L. Kul'tura v shope. // Neva, 2007, № 2, s. 128–149// Internet-resurs. Rezhim dostupa: http://hpsy.ru/public/x3156.htm
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Svetlana SHMELEVA

Andrey SHCHERBAK

Russia, St. Petersburg
National Research University — Higher School of Economics
Department of Political Science
Master's student, programme «Political Institutions and Innovation»

Russia, St. Petersburg
National Research University — Higher School of Economics
Research Fellow, Laboratory for Comparative Social Research
Assistant professor, Department of Political Science

Trust, Economical Development and Political Regime: Statistical Analysis of Connection

The paper focuses on the relationship between trust level and global competitiveness in the countries that have passed to the innovative economy. The author starts from the hypothesis that trust is the factor in the competitiveness increasing of the economies that have moved or are in the process of transition to the knowledge- based economy. The theoretical part of the paper reflects the various approaches to evaluation of these factors. The authors provide rating, sources for statistical data search and evaluation analysis. The notion of trust is seen as interpersonal and institutional. Global competitiveness is considered as a complex indicator made of twelve items. For the empirical part and study of the quality and intensity of the relationship 56 countries are selected according to the World Economic Forum data (2012). The selection principle is based on the country's economic assessment. Then eight multiple linear regression models are built. The dependent variable is global competitiveness, and independent variables are trust indices, political regime, the rule of law (also introduced a control variable — GDP per capita). In societies with high levels of interpersonal trust — «bridge building» that reduces transaction costs — innovations growth is faster. Additionally, openness of the economy in democracies stimulates the flow of ideas, talent and capital. The combination of all these factors and processes are affecting the growth of competitiveness. The institutional trust also affects the global competitiveness of innovative economies, but in combination with others factors such as the rule of law. The rule of law ensures a stable position of business and investors, encourages confidence in the existing institutions. In this case, the creation of new original products may not be the key priority, but there are necessary conditions for the scaling of existing technologies and products. The authors point end up with some practical implications that could be useful for competitiveness growth in Russia. It is assumed that the role of the trust is really important on current development stage in Russia. Only the presence of trust could promote manufacturing growth and research co-operation development that open access to global markets.

Key words: trust, global competitiveness, innovation economy, authoritarian regime, institutes, strength of weak ties, economy of knowledge.

References

  1. Coase R. (1984) The New Institutional Economics. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, vol.14, pp.229–231.
  2. Coleman J. (1988) Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. American journal of sociology, pp. 95–120.
  3. Dolgopjatova T.G. Baranov A.Ju. (2013) Innovacionnaja aktivnost' firm, delovoj klimat i korrupcija v stranah s perehodnoj jekonomikoj: jempiricheskij analiz. Doklad v ramkah sessii «Jeffekty razvitija nauki i innovacij» XIV Aprel'skoj mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii «Modernizacija jekonomiki i obshhestva», Moskva.
  4. Florida R. (2005). The Flight of the Creative Class. The New Global Competition for Talent. HarperBusiness, HarperCollins
  5. Fukuyama F. (1995) Trust: The social virtues and the creation of prosperity. New York: Free Press.
  6. Gel'man V. (2010) Avtoritarnaja modernizacija: missija nevypolnima. Voprosy mestnogo samoupravlenija, №3, ss.53–54.
  7. Granovetter M. (1973) The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, vol. 78, pp. 1360–1380
  8. Helmke G., Rosenbluth F. (2008) Regimes and the Rule of Law: Judicial Independence in Comparative Perspective. Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 11, pp. 205–234.
  9. Hwang V., Horowitt G. (2012) The Rainforest. The Secret to Building the Next Silicon Valley. Los Altos Hills: Regenwald.
  10. Inglehart R., Welzel C. (2005) Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  11. Moris D.S., Klesner J.L. (2010) Corruption and Trust: Theoretical Considerations and Evidence From Mexico. Comparative Political Studies, vol. 43 no 10, pp.1258– 1285.
  12. Petro N. (2001) Novgorod Region: A Russian Success Story. Post-Soviet Affairs, vol.15, pp.235–261.
  13. Putnam R. (1993) Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  14. Rajah J. (2012) Authoritarian Rule of Low. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  15. World Economic Forum (2013) The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013.
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Lyudmila KLYUKINA

Russia, Petrozavodsk
Petrozavodsk State University
chair of philosophy, Ph.D., professor.

Institutionalization of the Mythologema of Empire in Russian Cultural Consciousness

Institutionalization of the idea of empire in Russian cultural consciousness is connected to the establishment of the concept of the "Third Rome" in Russian medieval texts of the XV–XVI centuries. The article examines two standpoints of the process. From the standpoint of the historiographic tradition (N. V. Sinitsina), the concept of the "Third Rome" represents the Russian version of the idea translatio imperii, formulated with the aim to justify the autocephaly of the Russian Orthodox Church and the new political status of the Russian state as a tzardom and the tzar title of its ruler. From the standpoint of the semiotic approach (Y. M. Lotman, B. A. Uspensky), the concept of the "Third Rome" is interpreted as an organic synthesis of mythological and historical consciousness, conceived with the aim to preserve the ambivalent orientation of Russian culture both to the building of statehood and the development of spirituality. Both approaches to the given problem are complementary. The research of the cultural memory provides insight into the development of the semantic content of the concept of the "Third Rome", while the study of the historical context allows to clarify the ways used to implement this idea. To separate the original meaning of the concept of the "Third Rome" from its cultural processing, the ideal from its implementation, the author refers to the non-classical variant of phenomenology developed by M. K. Mamardashvili and A. M. Pyatigorsky, according to which texts of culture can be regarded as "texts of consciousness". In the context of the given approach, the mythologema of empire is thought of as a phenomenon of consciousness, with Russian consciousness included, designating such an intention of consciousness as sacralization of national statehood. The idea of empire is understood as a converted form of the mythologema of empire. The idea of empire is interpreted as a secondary structure of consciousness, which does not reduce to consciousness and can be considered as a mental structure by means of which the sampling and structuring of intentional availability. The mythologema of empire and the idea of empire can be considered as two different options of the "code" of the development of national culture. This refers to the choice of fundamental orientation of culture: either to creative work or totality. These attitudes are closely connected with such attitudes of consciousness as inclination for either conscious comprehension experience or maximum semiotization of social reality. The existence of this issue itself is of crucial importance for the Russian cultural thinking, as the being of Russia in the world is perceived by national consciousness as a being in the process of formation which admits free creative interpretation of certain primary texts and aesthetic forms.

Key words: "The Third Rome", idea of the symphony of "priesthood" and "tzardom", eschatology, transcendency, mythologema of empire, idea of empire, symbol, sign, code of culture.

References

  1. Arsen'ev V. O cerkovnom ikonopisanii // Filosofija russkogo religioznogo iskusstva XVI — XX vv.: Antologija. — M. –1993. Vyp.I. — S. 140 — 144.
  2. Bulgakov S. Pravoslavie. Ocherki uchenija Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi. — M., 1991.
  3. Dmitrieva R.P. Skazanie o knjaz'jah vladimirskih. — M.-L., 1955.
  4. Zen'kovskij V.V. Istorija russkoj filosofii. — Parizh, 1989. — T. 1.
  5. Issledovanie po istochnikovedeniju istorii SSSR XIII — XVIII vv. — M., 1986.
  6. Kassirer Je. Filosofija simvolicheskih form. — M. — SPb.: Universitetskaja kniga, 2002. — T.2.
  7. Klibanov A.I. Narodnaja social'naja utopija v Rossii. — M., 1977.
  8. Kljukina L.A. Ideja imperii kak sposob formirovanija kul'turnoj identichnosti Rossii // Uchenye zapiski Petrozavodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser.: Obshhestvennye i gumanitarnye nauki. — 2013. — № 7(36). — T. 2. –S. 85 — 89.
  9. Kljukina L.A. Fenomenologicheskaja strategija issledovanija osnovanij kul'tury : avtoref. dis. na soisk. uchen. step. d-ra filos. nauk : special'nost': 24.00.01 /
  10. Kljukina L.A. ; S.-Peterb. gos. un-t. — Sankt-Peterburg, 2010. — 41 s.
  11. Kljukina L.A. Formirovanie i funkcionirovanie imperskogo soznanija v russkoj kul'ture : opyt fenomenologicheskogo prochtenija / L. A. Kljukina ; Feder. agentstvo po obrazovaniju Ros. Federacii, Filos. fak., S.-Peterb. gos. un-t, S.-Peterb. filos. o-vo. — Sankt-Peterburg, 2009.
  12. Kljuchevskij V.O. Soch. v 8-mi tomah. — M., 1959. — T.VII.
  13. Lotman Ju.M., Uspenskij B.A. Otzvuki koncepcii «Moskva — Tretij Rim» v ideologii Petra Pervogo // Hudozhestvennyj jazyk srednevekov'ja. — M., 1982. — S. 236 — 249.
  14. Pamjatniki literatury Drevnej Rusi. Konec XV — pervaja polovina XVI veka. — M.: Hudozh. lit., 1984.
  15. Platonov S.F. Polnyj kurs lekcij po russkoj istorii : Dlja studentov vuzov / S.F. Platonov. — Rostov n/D: Feniks, 2000.
  16. Possevino A. Istoricheskie sochinenija o Rossii XVI v. — M., 1983.
  17. Prilozhenie №1. Okolo 1523 — 1524 g. Poslanie monaha pskovskogo Eleazarova monastyrja Filofeja d'jaku M.G. Misjurju Munehinu s oproverzheniem astrologicheskih predskazanij Nikolaja Buleva i s izlozheniem koncepcii «Tret'ego Rima» // Sinicyna N.V. Tretij Rim. Istoki i jevoljucija russkoj srednevekovoj koncepcii. (XV — XVI vv.). — M.: Izdatel'stvo «Indrik», 1998. — S. 336 — 357.
  18. Salmina M.A. Povesti o nachale Moskvy. — M.; L., 1964.
  19. Sinicyna N.V. Tretij Rim. Istoki i jevoljucija russkoj srednevekovoj koncepcii. (XV — XVI vv.). — M.: Izdatel'stvo «Indrik», 1998.
  20. Skrynnikov R.G. Krest i korona. Cerkov' i gosudarstvo na Rusi IH — HUII vv. — SPb.: «Iskusstvo — SPb», 2000.
  21. Trubeckoj E. Umozrenie v kraskah // Filosofija russkogo religioznogo iskusstva XVI — XX vv.: Antologija. — M. — 1993. — Vyp.I. — S. 195 — 219.
  22. Uspenskij B. Jetjudy o russkoj istorii. — SPb., 2002.
  23. Florovskij G. Puti russkogo bogoslovija. — 2-e izd. — R., 1981.
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Stanislav SULIMOV

Igor CHERNIGOVSKIKH

Russia, Voronezh
Voronezh State University of engineering technologies
Associate Professor, PhD in Philosophy
Associate Professor, PhD in Philosophy, Head of the philosophy Department

Political Models of the Aztecs and Mayas before the Spanish Conquest

Article is devoted to a comparative review of policy models of the Aztecs and the Mayas. The authors note that, if the political model of the Aztecs in the time of acquaintance with the Europeans was still in the process of formation, the extant written and other sources reflect the political regime of the Mayas' decline. Interrelation is observed human representations about the world, his role in the universe, and the political model. In the culture of the Aztecs the main world view subject is connected with the necessity of sacrificial blood for the existence of the Sun. Wars were the main source of prisoners-victims that determined the specificity of the Aztec society. The article considers the mechanisms of social mobility in the Aztec society, and forecasts of the probable development of its structure, if the Spanish invasion did not started. The Mayas' political model throughout its history determined the loyalty the dynastic principle of succession. A monarch of the Maya state in the first place was venerated as a descendant of the founders of his city. It was not possible for the Maya to replace a dynasty. On this basis, the authors explain how and why the only form of political integration Mayan cities was the confederation.

Key words: aristocracy, the Aztecs' state, the Maya' state, ideology, «League of Mayapan», world view, meritocracy, political model, political regime.

References

  1. Ershova G. G. Drevnjaja Amerika: polet vo vremeni i prostranstve. Mezoamerika / G. G. Ershova. — M. : Aletejja, 2002. — 392 s.
  2. Sustel' Zh. Povsednevnaja zhizn' actekov nakanune ispanskogo zavoevanija / Zh. Sustel'. — M. : Molodaja gvardija, 2007. — 287 s.
  3. Hagen, V. fon. Acteki, majja, inki / V. fon Hagen. — M. : Veche, 2004. — 464 s.
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Irina VICENTIY

Russia, Apatity
Kola branch of Petrozavodsk State University
Senior lecturer

The Student Body Political Culture (according to a study of the Murmansk region)

Article is based on empirical sociological research of the Murmansk region student body. Its theme fits into the problem field of formation of modern youth political culture. Subject of study are issues of students political culture. The aim is to present regional (Murmansk region) and subcultural (representatives of student community in a small town) features of its. Political culture is considered in accordance with the classical interpretation of G. Almond, as a separate subsystem of the political system of society associated with subjective orientations citizens. Particular attention is paid to its elements as a political activity, party identification, political tolerance.

Key words: policy, political culture, political behavior, political activity, political system, political tolerance, party, party identification, democracy, political consciousness.

References

  1. Milbrath L. Political Participation //Rand NcNally.-Chicago, 1965.
  2. Vishnevskij Ju. R., Trynov D. V., Shapko V. T. Grazhdanskaja kul'tura studentov. Tendencii i problemy formirovanija // Socis. — 2009. — №4.
  3. Pchelinceva I. G. Psihologicheskie mehanizmy vospitanija tolerantnosti // Zhurnal prikladnoj psihologii. — 2006. — № 5. — S. 2; Tolerantnost' / Obshh. red. M. P. Mchedlova. — M.: Respublika, 2004.
  4. Fedorova T.N. Tolerantnost' i formirovanie demokraticheskoj politicheskoj kul'tury v tranzitnyh obshhestvah. Rezhim dostupa: [http://www.portalus.ru].
  5. Shalin V. V. Osobennosti politicheskoj tolerantnosti v sovremennom rossijskom obshhestve // Sociologija i obshhestvo. Trudy Pervogo Vserossijskogo sociologicheskogo kongressa «Obshhestvo i sociologija: novye realii i novye idei» / Pod redakciej Vasil'kovoj V. V., Kozlovskogo V. V., Skvorcova N. G. — Spb., 2002.
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Theory of Culture

Jan Aart SCHOLTE

Sweden, Gothenburg; United Kingdom, Warwick
Faculty Chair in Peace and Development, University of Gothenburg
Professor of Politics and International Studies, University of Warwick

A Transculturalist Path to Democratic Global Cooperation

The problem of attaining global cooperation amidst cultural diversity is frequently and often urgently affirmed. However, the main existing prescriptions for handling cultural diversity in global politics — namely, liberal cosmopolitanism, multiculturalism and interculturalism — each have major deficiencies. An alternative politics of cultural diversity — here termed transculturalism — takes a different approach by engaging the divergence of life-worlds not as a problem for global cooperation, but as a positive opportunity for forging creative collaboration. Core principles of the proposed transculturalist framework include intense reflexivity, explicit attention to culture/power links, recognition of cultural complexity, embrace of cultural diversity, cultivation of humility, deep listening, and reciprocal learning for positive change. Transculturalism offers significant promise for furthering constructive global cooperation, although the approach is by itself no panacea, and its implementation faces major challenges.

Key words: cosmopolitanism; global democracy; global governance; globalization; interculturalism; legitimacy; multiculturalism; transculturalism.

References

  1. W.H. Sewell, 'The Concept(s) of Culture', in V. Bonnell and L. Hunt (eds), Beyond the Cultural Turn: New Directions in the Study of Society and Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), 35-61.
  2. G. Krücken and G.S. Drori (eds), World Society: The Writings of John W. Meyer (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).
  3. S.P. Huntington, 'The Clash of Civilizations?' Foreign Affairs, vol. 72, no. 3 (Summer 1993), pp. 22-49.
  4. B. de Sousa Santos (ed.), Cognitive Justice in a Global World (Lanham: Lexington, 2007).
  5. Cf. D. Archibugi, The Global Commonwealth of Citizens: Toward Cosmopolitan Democracy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008); G.W. Brown and D. Held (eds), The Cosmopolitanism Reader. Cambridge: Polity, 2010).
  6. J. Bohman, Democracy across Borders: From Dêmos to Dêmoi (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007); J.S. Dryzek, Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
  7. Cf. C. Taylor, Multiculturalism and 'The Politics of Recognition' (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992); D. Miller, On Nationality (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).
  8. T. Cantle, Interculturalism: The New Era of Cohesion and Diversity (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2012); C. Taylor, 'Interculturalism or Multiculturalism?' Philosophy & Social Criticism, 38 (4-5) May 2012.
  9. F. Ortíz, Cuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995 [1940]).
  10. W.D. Mignolo and F. Schiwy, 'Transculturation and the Colonial Difference: Double Translation', in T. Maranhao and B. Streck (eds), Translation and Ethnography: The Anthropological Challenge of Intercultural Understanding (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2003), pp. 12-34.
  11. W. Welsch, 'Tranculturality – The Puzzling Form of Cultures Today', in Mike Featherstone and Scott Lash (eds), Spaces of Culture: City, Nation, World (London: Sage, 1999), pp. 194-213.
  12. J. Lewis, 'From Culturalism to Transculturalism', Iowa Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 1,no. 1 (2002), pp. 14-32.
  13. R. Slimbach, 'The Transcultural Journey', Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, vol. 11 (August 2005), pp. 205-30.
  14. J.B. Child, Transcommunality: From the Politics of Conversion to the Ethics of Respect (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003).
  15. J.N. Pieterse, 'Globalisation as Hybridisation', International Sociology, vol. 9, no. 2 (June 1994), pp. 161-84; C. Mouffe, 'Which World Order: Cosmopolitan or Multipolar?' Ethical Perspectives, vol. 15, no. 4 (2008), pp. 453-67.
  16. J.A. Scholte, Democratizing the Global Economy: The Role of Civil Society (Coventry: Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation, 2004) – at www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/projects/englishreport.pdf; J.A. Scholte, 'Reinventing Global Democracy', European Journal of International Relations, 20 (1) (March 2014): 3-28; and website of the Building Global Democracy programme, www.buildingglobaldemocracy.org.
  17. P. Bourdieu and L.J.D. Wacquant, An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992).
  18. C. Stewart, 'Syncretism and Its Synonyms: Reflections on Cultural Mixture', Diacritics, vol. 29, no. 3 (Fall 1999), 40-62.
  19. J.B. Child, 'What Is Transcommunality?' (2007). Available at: www.transcommunality.org/transcommunality.html.
  20. Shiv Visvanathan, remark in the workshop 'Transcultural Constructions of Global Legitimacy', Centre for Global Cooperation Research, Duisburg, 13-15 November 2013.
  21. P. Freire, Pedagogia da Tolerancia (São Paulo: Unesp, 2005); L.M.T.M. de Souza, 'Para uma redefinição de Letramento Crítico: conflito e produção de significação', in R.F. Maciel and V. Assis (eds), Formação de Professores de Línguas - Ampliando Perspectivas (Jundiaí: Paco Editorial, 2011).
  22. P.B. Tjon Sie Fat, Chinese New Migrants in Suriname: The Inevitability of Ethnic Performing (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009).
  23. R.O. Keohane, 'Democracy-Enhancing Multilateralism', International Organization, vol. 63, no.1 (2009), pp. 1-31.
  24. T. Macdonald, Global Stakeholder Democracy: Power and Representation beyond Liberal States (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).
  25. T. Tännsjö, Global Democracy: The Case for a World Government (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008).
  26. J.S. Dryzek, Deliberative Global Politics (Cambridge: Polity, 2006).
  27. M. Hardt and A. Negri, Multitude (New York: Penguin, 2004).
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Concepts of Culture

Mikhail STEPANOV

Russia, St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Institute of Cultural Research. Researcher
St. Petersburg State University of Technology and Design, Institute of Business Communications
PhD, Associate Professor

The Elements of Media Archaeology

The article discusses the specifics of media archaeological research. The Media Archaeology is committed to seek out and carefully considers the forgotten and obsolete media (if not say technological debris) forms and tactics of different visions of the future. Around research to various media exist several theoretical and experimental approaches, which is common to attempt to show the historical importance of the set of representations of the media and thereby critically destruct of tunnel vision being rigidly defined media and «the» right view on the future. Meanwhile, media archeology is not confined only to the exhumation wonders machine, but there is in tracing genealogical roots navigation becomings these forgotten now media and inherent alternative forms of collective expression and experience. Archaeology media connects media experiences: looking back, she takes a look into the future from the present, revealing a reconfiguration both technological and social relations and forms of modernity.

Key words: media archeology, media theory , media culture , media ecology, machine, S.Zielinski , E.Huhtamo.

References

  1. Kittler F. A. Aufschreibesysteme 1800/1900. Munchen: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1985. (eng.transl.: Discourse networks 1800/1900 / trans. M. Metteer, c. cullens. — Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990.);
  2. Kittler F. A. Grammophon Film Typewriter. Berlin: Brinkmann & Bose. 1986 (English edition: 1999.);
  3. Kittler F. A. Aufschreibesysteme 1800/1900. Munchen: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1985. (v anglijskom perevode Discourse networks 1800/1900 / trans. M. Metteer, c. cullens. — Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990.);
  4. Gjelloujej, A. R. Nerabotajushhij interfejs / / Media: mezhdu magiej i tehnologiej / pod redakciej N. Sosna, K. Fedorovoj. — M., Ekb.: Kabinetnyj uchenyj, 2014. — S. 252-289.
  5. Media Archaeology: Approaches, Applications, and Implications / ed. E. Huhtamo, J. Parikka. — Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2011. – 368 s.
  6. Huhtamo, E. and Parikka, J. Introduction: An Archaeology of Media Archaeology. / Media Archaeology: Approaches, Applications, and Implications/ ed. E. Huhtamo, J. Parikka. — Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2011. — R.3.
  7. Huhtamo, Je. Arheologija media. Osobyj vzgljad / Media: mezhdu magiej i tehnologiej / pod redakciej N. Sosna, K. Fedorovoj. — M., Ekb.: Kabinetnyj uchenyj, 2014. — S. 176.
  8. Huhtamo, E. Dismantling the Fairy Engine: Media Archaeology as Topos Study / Media Archaeology: Approaches, Applications, and Implications / ed. E. Huhtamo, J. Parikka. — Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2011.
  9. Sosna, N., Fjodorova, K. Vvedenie / Media: mezhdu magiej i tehnologiej / pod redakciej N. Sosna, K. Fedorovoj. — M., Ekb.: Kabinetnyj uchenyj, 2014. — S. 12.
  10. Zielinski, S. "Media Archaeology," Cheory, no. ga111 (July 11, 1996) www.ctheory.net/articles.apsx?id=42
  11. Zielinski, S. Deep Time of the Media: Toward an Archaeology of Hearing and Seeing by Technical Means — Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006. — R. 5.
  12. Archaeologie der Medien: Zur Tiefenzeit des technischen Hoerens und Sehens. — Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 2002. – 400 s.
  13. Zilinski, Z. Nabrasyvat' i vyjavljat'. Aspekty genealogii proekcii. / per. s nem. M. A. Stepanova. — SPb.: Jejdos, 2013. – 64 s. ill. — Serija «machina media».
  14. Vivian Sobchack Afterword: Media Archaeology and Re-presencing the Past. // Media Archaeology: Approaches, Applications, and Implications/ ed. E. Huhtamo, J. Parikka. — Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2011. — R. 328.
  15. Ernst, W. Digital Memory and the Archive. — Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013
  16. Huhtamo, E. Illusions in Motion. Media Archaeology of the Moving Panorama and Related Spectacles. — Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013.
  17. Parikka, J. What is media archaeology? — Cambridge: Polity, 2012.
  18. Parikka, J. Insect media: An archaeology of animals and technology. — Minneapolis-London: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.
  19. Stepanov M.A. Kurator kak rezul'tat razdelenija truda (po P. Vajbelju). Teoreticheskie prolegomeny k kuratorstvu v tehnologicheskom iskusstve // Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal issledovanij kul'tury. — 2013. No.1(10). — S. 136-137.
  20. Vol'fgang Jernst. Vremja media: ponjatija, arheologija, nauka / Media: mezhdu magiej i tehnologiej / pod redakciej N. Sosna, K. Fedorovoj. — M., Ekb.: Kabinetnyj uchenyj, 2014. — S.144-161.
  21. Ernst, W. Media Archaeography: Method and Machine versus History and Narrative of Media / Media Archaeology: Approaches, Applications, and Implications / ed. E. Huhtamo, J. Parikka. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2011.
  22. Galloway, Alexander R. Protocol: how control exists after decentralization. — Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 2004. — Leonardo (Series) – 260 p.
  23. Grau O. Fantasmagoricheskoe vizual'noe koldovstvo 18-ogo stoletija i ego zhizn' v media iskusstve. / per. s nem. / Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal issledovanij kul'tury. – 2012. №5(6). — S.101-110.
  24. Grau, O. Jemocii i immersija: kljuchevye jelementy vizual'nyh issledovanij. / Per. s nem. A. M. Gajsina. — SPb.: Jejdos, 2013. — 56 s., ill. — Serija "machina media".
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Art Studies

Tatiana YURIEVA

Russia, St. Petersburg
Saint-Petersburg State University
Ph.D. in Art Criticism; Professor, Chair of methods and theory of teaching arts and humanities, faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Director of the Contemporary Art Museum named after S. Dyaghilev St. Petersburg State University

Concept of a national hero in art of the USA in XVIII century. Reflection of the myth in living portraits of George Washington

This article is about the problem of formation of national hero in life and art in the USA during American Revolutionary War, War of Independence. This time is extremely interesting for studying due to several reasons. XVIII century is the Age of Enlightenment on the territory of America; it appeared suddenly and became unique, bringing up new contrast into the world art. The hero of the study became George Washington. This president was not just a historical relics for next centuries. His status in American society as "The Father of the Nation" is doubtless. His "Final message", the statements form the conception of what values and principals were vital for the first president of the USA. He helped the nation to perceive its identity. Due to George Washington's character and actions, myphologeme of national hero assumed such concepts as heroism, honesty, patriotism. George Washington is known to take an active part in creating of Constitution and Declaration of Independence. These documents are basic for American law and way of life in the USA to the present day. Any myth needs experiencing and registering. American myphology with peculiarities, with short history in compare to European long one is reflected in art of the USA not only in portrait painting, but also in history painting. For XVIII century the culture of the USA is full of true stories from real history. This myth is performed and perceived by American artists, friends and worshippers impressed by George Washington. The artists Charles Peale, Gilbert Stuart and others depicted the president's image and images of his friends for centuries. Special features of these portraits are described in the article. Reminding of formation of National hero and his reflection in portrait painting is very significant for understanding not only American culture but, for example, Russian one too.

Key words: Washington, constitution, national hero, myphologeme, portrait.

References

  1. Jur'eva N.S. Izobrazitel'noe iskusstvo. Istorija SShA. T. 1.: 1607-1877. / Gl. red. G. N. Sevost'janov. — M., 1983. — S. 585.
  2. Kauli M. Dom so mnogimi oknami / Per. s angl. — M.: Progress, 1973. — S. 260.
  3. Bart R. Izbrannye raboty: Semiotika. Pojetika. — M.: Progress, 1994. — S. 74.
  4. Parrington V. L. Osnovnye techenija amerikanskoj mysli. T. 1. — M., 1962. — S. 204.
  5. Barr A. Art in America. — N. Y., 1935. — P. 28.
  6. Jur'eva T.S. Portret v amerikanskoj kul'ture XVIII veka. — SPb., 2001 — S. 49.
  7. The selected papers of Charles Wilson Peale and his family. Vol. 1: 1735-1791. — New Haven; London, 1983. — P. 110.
  8. Neuhaus E. The History and Ideals of American Art. — London, 1931. — P. 121.
  9. Flexner J. Th. America`s old Masters: First Artists of the New World. — N. Y., 1939. — P. 224.
  10. Walker J. National gallery of Art. — Wash., N.Y.1970. — P. 224.
  11. Lynes R. Self-portarit of American Artist / Art in America.1965, Aug.-Sept. — P. 28.
  12. Arnason G. G. Skul'ptura Gudona. — M., 1982.
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