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# 3(16) 2014: Contemporary intercultural dynamics
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Topic of the Issue

André MAGORD

oitiers University.
Professor, Director of the Institute for Acadian and Quebec studies.
Repenser la co-existence interculturelle à la lumière du multiculturalisme canadien.

Re-thinking intercultural co-existence in the light of Canadian multiculturalism

In the years 2010–2011 Angela Merkel, David Cameron and Nicolas Sarkozy made public declarations to announce the failure of multiculturalism and therefore of the dynamics of intercultural diversity. Around the world, conservative and nationalist attitudes as well as populist manipulation of fear of the other are developing. How can humans fall back into the same blindness after so many examples of inconsistent ostracisms which led to tragedies in the past? Part of the answer lies in an anthropological and psycho-sociological analysis of this blind area. Stigmatisation and scapegoating are always caused by an "amnesia of the genesis", an inability by the dominant group who accuses the "different other" to recognize that it created the very situation that it decries. Since the 1980s, the advent of neo-liberalism has enacted both the idea of freedom but also that of the dilution of borders, societal benchmarks and harmonization rules in favor of those, uncontrollable ones of the global market. In addition, centering on individualism and materialism, which is inherent in this system, induces a desubstantialization of social, political and cultural contents. Rethinking intercultural dynamics therefore implies a critical review of the relationship between nation, ethnicity and the political project of "living together".

Key words: criticism of multiculturalism, the criticism of the Republican model of integration, integration / acceptance, unity in diversity

References

  1. http://www.liberation.fr/politiques/2011/02/11/multiculturalisme-
    sarkozy-deplace-le-debat_714311
  2. Martinache, Igor, «Intégration : la querelle du multiculturalisme», Alternatives Economiques Hors-série n° 089 - avril 2011
  3. Balandier, Georges, Sens et puissance. Les dynamiques sociales, Paris, PUF, 1971, p. 6–7.
  4. Voir par exemple, Saussure, (de), Léopold, Psychologie de la colonisation française dans ses rapports avec les sociétés indigènes, Félix Alcan, 1899.
  5. Bourdieu, Pierre, Le mystère du ministère . In: «Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales», vol. 140, décembre 2001.
  6. Voir entre autres, Certeau (de), Michel, L'étranger ou l'union dans la différence, Coll. Essais, Point, 2005.
  7. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes, études 4, 1754.
  8. Voir entre autres, le débat autour de l'idée du «bon sauvage», Rousseau, op. cit.
  9. P. Leroy-Beaulieu, De la colonisation chez les peuples modernes, Guillaumin éd., 1870.
  10. Gobineau, (de) Arthur, Essai sur l'inégalité des Races humaines, 1854. Édition de 1933.
  11. Guichard, Eric et Noiriel Gérard, dir., Constructions des nationalités et immigration dans la France contemporaine, presses de l'école normale supérieure, Paris, 1997.
  12. Ibid
  13. Blanchard Pascal, Boëtsch, Gilles, Deroo, Eric et Lemaire, Sandrine, dir., Zoos humains et exhibitions coloniales-150 ans d'inventions de l'Autre, Paris, La Décourverte, 2011.
  14. Voir par exemple, à ce sujet le roman historique, Cavana, François, Les Ritals, Belfont, 1980.
  15. Taylor, Charles, Multiculturalisme : Différence et démocratie, Aubier, 1993.
  16. Rocher et Daniel Salée, (1997), «Libéralisme et tensions identitaires : éléments de réflexion sur le désarroi des sociétés modernes», Politique et Sociétés, vol. 16, n° 2, p. 3–30.
  17. Stiegler, Bernard (2004), De la misère symbolique. 1. L'époque hyperindustrielle, Paris, Éditions Galilée.
  18. Stiegler, op.cit.
  19. Duménil, Gérard, Lévy, Dominique, La grande bifurcation – En finir avec le néolibéralisme, Editions de la Découverte, 2014.
  20. Le dernier débat public proposé par le gouvernement remonte à 2008, lorsque le président Sarkozy proposa de faire reconnaître les bienfaits de la colonisation, signe de la distance qu'il reste encore à parcourir pour aborder la réalité historique des faits.
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Ariane LE MOING

Poitiers, France.
Poitiers University.
PhD, Senior lecturer in Canadian civilization.
Department of English studies.

La formation interculturelle au Québec: état des lieux Intercultural training in Quebec: an analysis

This article aims at analyzing intercultural training offered to clients working in different organizations in Quebec whose goals are to welcome, inform, advise and orient people from different cultures. This work which is mainly based on interviews conducted with trainers, consultants and social workers is divided into three parts : the first one deals with the theoretical framework of the study and describes in particular the different notions of interculturalism tackled with in the field of education. The second one discusses the conception of interculturalism in a broader political context, that of the model of integration promoted by the province of Quebec. The third and last part is dedicated to the results of the study regarding intercultural training : what are its various objectives, its methods, its theoretical approaches and its main themes?

Key words: intercultural training, social interventions with different ethnic groups, interculturality, multiculturalism, interculturalism.

References

  1. Bouchard, Gérard et Charles Taylor, Rapport final de la Commission de consultation sur les pratiques d'accommodement reliées aux différences culturelles, Gouvernement du Québec, 2008.
  2. Clanet, Claude, L'interculturel : Introduction aux approches interculturelles en éducation et en sciences humaines, Toulouse, Presses Universitaires du Mirail, 1990.
  3. Cohen-Emerique, Margalit. « L 'approche interculturelle dans le processus d'aide », Santé mentale au Québec, vol. XVIII, n°1, pp. 71–91.
  4. Cyr, Ariane, Pluralisme et citoyenneté : le discours de la première génération d'immigrants haïtiens de Montréal. Collection des Thèses du Centre d'Études Canadiennes de l'Université Paris III, n°10, 2004, p. 72.
  5. Fournier, Michel, « Les résistances à la diversité culturelle : l'argumentaire antipluraliste et autres objections courantes » dans Accommodements institutionnels et citoyens : cadres juridiques et politiques pour interagir dans des sociétés plurielles. Éditions du Conseil de l'Europe, n°21, 2009.
  6. Geoffroy, Martin, « La crise des accommodements raisonnables au Québec : de la jurisprudence à l'ingérence », Études canadiennes/Canadian Studies, n°65, 2008.
  7. Kanouté, Fasal, Janine Hohl, Spyridoula Xenocostas, Laetitia Duong, « Les mots pour le dire et pour intervenir », dans M. Cognet et C. Montgomery, Éthique de l'Altérité. La question de la culture dans le champ de la santé et des services sociaux, Québec, Presses de l'Université Laval, 2007, pp. 241–261.
  8. Kiss, Adam., L'empathie et la rencontre interculturelle, L'Harmattan, 2001.
  9. Larochelle-Audet Julie, Corina Borri-Anadon, Marie McAndrew, Maryse Potvin, La formation initiale du personnel scolaire sur la diversité ethnoculturelle, religieuse et linguistique dans les universités québécoises : portrait quantitatif et qualitatif. Rapport de recherche, CEETUM/Chaire de recherche du Canada sur l'Éducation et les rapports ethniques, Janvier 2013.
  10. Legault, Gisèle et Liliane Rachédi (dir. ), L'intervention interculturelle, 2e édition, Gaëtan Morin Éditeur, Chenelière Éducation, 2008.
  11. Moro, Marie Rose, « Plaidoyer pour une école transculturelle », L'école des parents, octobre-novembre 2013, n° 604.
  12. Mujawamariya, Donatille, L'éducation multiculturelle dans la formation des enseignants au Canada. Dilemmes et défis. Berne, Suisse, Peter Lang SA, Editions scientifiques internationales, 2006.
  13. Rogers , Everett M. and Thomas M. Steinfatt. Intercultural Communication, Waveland Press, 1999.
  14. Thésée Gina, Nicole Carignan, Paul R. Carr (dir. ), Les faces cachées de l'interculturel, L'Harmattan, 2010.
  15. Vatz Laaroussi, Michèle, Estelle Bernier et Lucille Guilbert, Les collectivités locales au cœur de l'intégration des immigrants. Presses de l'Université Laval, 2012. (« Le rôle des organismes communautaires et du médiateur interculturel face aux défis de la diversité culturelle en région », Laura Anson, pp. 211–217)
  16. «L'interculturel au bout du fil» dans Entrevues Metiss, Volume 5, numéro 4, avril 2014.
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Elena BLAGORODOVA

Russia, Rostov-on-Don.
Southern Federal University.
Institute of philosophy and social-political Sciences, Lecturer, PhD.

Multiculturalism and Identity Crisis: the Experiences of Canada and Russia

In this article the author defines the principal role of cultural policy as a way to overcome the crisis of national identity. Multiculturalism in Canada is given as an example. First, the article highlights the main problems of the crisis of national identity in Russia and the world as a whole. It is shown that globalization not only transforms the concept of the nation, but also alters the mechanisms of collective identification. Then, the author conducts a comparative analysis of the cultural policies of Canada and Russia. The article concludes by considering the possibility of the use of this policy in the cultural practice in Russia.

Key words: culture, identity, crisis, multiculturalism, politics, globalization, society, Canada, Russia

References

  1. Astaf'eva O. N. Kul'turnaja politika : teoreticheskoe ponjatie i upravlencheskaja dejatel'nost' (Lekcii 1–3) // Kul'turologicheskij zhurnal [Jelektronnyj resurs]. 2010. № 2. URL: http://www.cr-journal.ru/rus/journals/20.html&;j_id=3 (Data obrashhenija 20.08.2014 g. )
  2. Vallerstajn I. Konstruirovanie naroda: rasa, nacija, jetnicheskaja gruppa// Je. Balibar, I. Vallerstajn Rasa, nacija, klass. Dvusmyslennye identichnosti.  — M.: Logos, 2004 g — c. 83–103.
  3. Zakovorotnaja M. V. Identichnost' cheloveka. Social'no-filosofskie aspekty. Rostov-na-D., 1999 g. [Jelektronnyj resurs]. URL:http://filosof.historic.ru/books/item/
    f00/s00/z0000729/st000.shtml (Data obrashhenija 21. 08. 2014 g. )
  4. Zakon RF ot 9 oktjabrja 1992 g. №3612–1 «Osnovy zakonodatel'stva RF o kul'ture» (redakcija ot 8 maja 2010 g. ) [Jelektronnyj resurs].  — URL: Naumkin V. «Rossija v global'noj politike». [Jelektronnyj resurs] . Rezhim dostupa: http://flot2017.com/item/analitics/40095 (Data obrashhenija 22.08.2014 g. )
  5. Tomlinson J. Globalization and culture identity D. Held and A. McGrew (eds) The Global Transformations Reader, Cambridge: Polity. pp. 269–277.
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Oxana KARNAUKHOVA

Russia, Rostov-on-Don.
Southern Federal University.
Institute of History and International Relations
Chair of Foreign History and International Relations
Candidate of Science, associate professor

Cultural Citizenship in Multicultural Society: Illusion or Reality?

One of the trends in recent political and social discourse is the increasing confluence of culture and citizenship. Until about the late 1980s multiculturalism and citizenship performed quite different functions. While citizenship was defined by birth and embodied the process of incorporation into the political unity, multiculturalism dealt with incoming migrants.
Today citizenship seems more a social status guaranteeing security and at the same time a specific identity. Despite the multiplicity of approaches and academic works, the main concern of citizenship is based on the idea of binary differences, which create a cultural foundation. So cultural citizenship is considered more the process of cultural discourse construction than accommodation in the polity. It is not entirely about formal rights (even minority rights as we see in multiculturalism), but is a matter of participation in a community.
Today cultural citizenship suggests complex forms of formal and informal belonging, which carry the burden of history and marginalized location between modernity and postmodernity. One of the main characteristics is the consistent realization of the meta-state, in which we can observe language unification and strengthening concepts of the common good.. The emotional dimension of collective identities is equally important. The Other is inevitably inserted into the system of allegiances.

Key words: citizenship, multiculturalism, belonging, allegiances, identity, community

References

  1. Beck U., Grande E. Cosmopolitan Europe. Polity Press, UK, 2007.
  2. Beiner, R. Theorizing Citizenship. J. G. A. Pocock, Michael Ignatieff. USA: State University of New York, Albany, 1995.
  3. Bennett, T. Differing Diversities: Cultural Policy and Cultural Diversity. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2001.
  4. Blunkett D. David Blunkett's speech. The home secretary's speech to the 2003 Labour party conference in Bournemouth. The Guardian October 2, 2003. [Jelektronnyj resurs] Dostup: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/oct/02/
    labourconference.labour9 (23.09.2014)
  5. Cornelius, W. A., Martin, P. L. and J. F. Hollifield. Controlling Immigration. A Global Perspective. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.
  6. Delanty, G. Peripheries and borders in a post−western Europe. 2007 [Jelektronnyj resurs]. Dostup: www. eurozine. com (18. 05. 2014)
  7. Hall S., du Gay P. Questions of Cultural Identity. SAGE Publications, 1996.
  8. Isin, Engin F. Citizenship after orientalism: an unfinished project, Citizenship Studies 2012, № 16 (5–6):563–572.
  9. Joppke C. Ethnic Diversity and the State , The British Journal of Sociology. 2004, 55, 3.
  10. Labelle, Micheline Re-reading citizenship and the transnational practices of immigrants' — May 2002. Dostup: http://www.ceri-sciences-po.org (18.05.2014)
  11. Marshall T. H. Citizenship and social class and other essays.  — Cambridge: CUP. 1950.
  12. Martiniello, M. Sortir des ghettos culturels . Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 1997.
  13. Modood, T. Multiculturalism: A Civic Idea. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2012.
  14. Mouffe, C. Democratic citizenship and the political community, C. Mouffe, ed. Dimensions of radical democracy: pluralism, citizenship, community. London: Verson, 1992.
  15. Ong, A. Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality. Duke University Press, 2004.
  16. Sassen, S. Guests and aliens. New York: New Press, 1999.
  17. Secure borders, saving heaven: integration with diversity in modern Britain. Doklad, predstavlennyj Parlamentu Velikobritanii. 2002 [Jelektronnyj resurs] Dostup: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/
    attachment_data/file/250926/cm5387.pdf (23.09.2014)
  18. Soysal Y. Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1994.
  19. Steinberg, M.; Tilly Ch. Citizenship, Identity and Social History. International Review of Social History Supplements (Reprint edition ed. ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  20. Zolberg, A. 'Immigration and Multiculturalism in the Industrial Democracies'. In R. Baubock, A. Heller and A. R. Zolberg The Challenge of Diversity. Integration and Pluralism in Societies of Immigration, Aldershot: Avebury/European Center, 1996.
  21. Balibar Je., Vallerstajn I. Rasa, nacija, klass. Dvusmyslennye identichnosti. Per s fr. pod. red. O. Nikiforova i P. Hickogo. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo "Logos", 2004.
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Jean-Philippe HUSSON

Poitiers, France.
University of Poitiers.
PhD, emeritus professor.

Multiculturalism: analysis of an ideological construction

The thesis defended in this article is that multiculturalism is an ideological thinking, which means that it does not belong to science and that its function consists in justifying class interests. In this case, multiculturalism basically serves the interests of the employers asking for mass immigration in order to have cheap and docile labor. From a political point of view, it may be defined as a radical negation of the republican principles. In particular, it appears incompatible with the ideas of unity and indivisibility of nation, national sovereignty and secularity.
Having defined multiculturalism, we are able to tackle the leading question of the coexistence of various ethnic and/or religious communities within one national territory. For the supporters of multiculturalism, this coexistence is always considered beneficial for all the groups involved in such a situation, with no condition to fulfil for the incomers but the obligation, for the natives, to adapt themselves to the habits of the first mentioned.
In fact, the postulates of multiculturalism are deeply untrue. The study of the emancipation of the Jews during the French Revolution and Empire, for instance, shows that several obstacles had to be cleared before reaching a full assimilation. Regarding contemporary French society, various sociological works prove that, in France, native populations and immigrants, after having drawn closer together, tend nowadays to differ more and more.
Some phenomena can be called upon to explain this conclusion: the concentration of the immigrants in determined areas; the migration (« white flight ») of the poor natives from the suburbs to the outer suburbs and rural zones; the increasing number of endogamous unions under the effect of the communities pressure. The consequence of these phenomena is the disappearance of the republican ideal of assimilation, which means the transformation of the immigrants into French citizens. The rebirth of this ideal would suppose a breaking off with multiculturalism, but also a radical change in migration policies in order to prevent the previously described sociological phenomena from happening.

Key words: multiculturalism, integration, assimilation, migration policies, antiracism

References

  1. Jean-Claude Michéa, L'Empire du moindre mal ; essai sur la civilisation libérale, Paris, Climats, 2007, p. 14.
  2. Will Kymlicka, Finding Our Way : Rethinking Ethnocultural Relacions in Canada, Toronto / New York, Oxford University Press, 1998.
  3. Danic Parenteau, «Critiques du multiculturalisme canadien», L'action nationale (Montréal), mars 2010.
  4. Le Figaro, 10 février 2011.
  5. Emmanuel Todd, Le destin des immigrés. Assimilation et ségrégation dans les démocraties occidentales, Paris, Le Seuil (coll. «Points ; Essais»), 1994, pp. 301–302.
  6. Gilles Kepel, Les banlieues de l'Islam. Naissance d'une religion en France, Paris, Le Seuil, 1987.
  7. Gilles Kepel, Banlieue de la République. Société, politique et religion à Clichy-sous-Bois et Montfermeil, Paris, Gallimard, 2012.
  8. Haut Conseil à l'intégration, Les défis de l'intégration à l'école et Recommandations du Haut Conseil à l'intégration au Premier Ministre relatives à l'expression religieuse dans les espaces publics de la République, Paris, La Documentation Française, 2011.
  9. Emmanuel Todd, La diversité du monde. Structures familiales et modernité, Paris, Le Seuil (coll. «L'histoire immédiate»), 1999, pp. 145.
  10. Christophe Guilluy, Fractures françaises, Paris, François Bourin (coll. «Politique»), 2010.
  11. Michèle Tribalat, Assimilation : la fin du modèle français, Paris, Ed. du Toucan, 2013.
  12. Mathieu Bock-Côté, «Pourquoi le Québec veut en finir avec le multiculturalisme», Le Figaro, 4 avril 2014.
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Pascale PERRAUDIN

Saint Louis, USA.
Saint Louis University (MO).
PhD, Associate Professor of French and Postcolonial Studies.

Fiction(s) de nation et interculturalité

Fiction(s) of Nation and Interculturality: this article examines the relationship between cultural minorities and the State in contemporary France. I examine the limits of the dominant narrative that shapes the nation. While the nation is understood to provide room for evolution and transformation of its people, and as such, to provide a space for intercultural dynamic, the dominant cultural discourse suggests a reproduction of old patterns. A reading of Laurent Mauvignier's novel Des Hommes (2009), which deals with a number of unresolved issues surrounding the French-Algerian war (1954–1962) and its memory, suggests that a people's ability to deal with a cultural minority of colonial descent might be compromised. An analysis of narrative elements in the text indicates how individual voices are circumscribed by a dominant narrative of the nation and its history: their positioning toward the other (formerly the colonial other), as a result, is shaped by the return to an earlier perception of history, and forecloses intercultural relations.

Key words: Renan, nation, interculturality, master narrative, transmission, narration, imagination, France, Algeria, French-Algerian War, ethnic minorities, colonization, postcolonialism

References

  1. Appadurai, Arjun. "Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy. " Public Culture, Vol. 2:2, Spring, 1990.
  2. Courtois, Gérard. "Les crispations alarmantes de la société française. " Le Monde. 24 janvier 2013. http://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2013/01/24/
    les-crispations-alarmantes-de-la-societe-
    francaise_1821655_823448.html
  3. Fistetti. Francesco. Théories du multiculturalisme. Un parcours entre philosophie et sciences sociales. traduit de l'italien par Philippe Chanial et Marilisa Preziosi. Éditions la Découverte/M. A. U. S. S. (2009).
  4. Ipsos, "France 2013: les nouvelles fractures," Janvier 2013. Web. 25 janvier 2013. http://www.ipsos.fr/ipsos-public-affairs/actualites/
    2013–01–24-france-2013-nouvelles-fractures
  5. Kritzman, Lawrence D., «Identity Crises: France, Culture and the Idea of the Nation.»  SubStance, Vol. 24, No. 1/2, Issue 76/77: Special Issue: France's Identity Crises (1995), pp. 5–20
  6. Laurent, Samuel. "Sept idées recues sur l'immigration et les immigrés. " Le Monde, 6 août 2014. http://www.lemonde.fr/les-decodeurs/article/2014/08/06
    /sept-idees-recues-sur-l-immigration-et-les-
    immigres_4467506_4355770.html
  7. Mauvignier, Laurent. Des hommes. Paris: Minuit, 2009.
  8. Noiriel, Gérard. Population, immigration et identité nationale en France. XIXè — XXè siècles. Paris, Hachette, 1992.
  9. Renan, Ernest. «Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?» https://archive.org/stream/questcequunenat00renagoog#page/n21/mode/2up (9 novembre 2013)
  10. Vergès, Françoise. «Postcolonialité: retour sur une 'théorie'.» in Retour du colonial? Disculpation et réhabilitation de l'histoire coloniale française. (dir. Catherine Coquio). Nantes: L'atalante, 2008, p. 277–288.
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Jeremy PRICE

Poitiers, France.
University of Poitiers, MIMMOC laboratory.
Lecturer in British Studies.

On Eagle's Wing: Imagined Transatlantic Communities in the Ulster-Scots Revival

The North-South Language Body which was born out of the Belfast Agreement of 1998 is comprised of the Irish Language Agency, and the Ulster-Scots Agency. The overall remit of the latter Agency is "to promote the study, conservation, development and use of Ulster-Scots as a living language, to encourage and develop the full range of its attendant culture; and to promote an understanding of the history of the Ulster-Scots."
Regarding this "attendant culture" the Agency specifically states that it "seeks to foster an ever growing desire amongst individuals and community groups to express their cultural identity through the arts, music (fiddle, drums, pipes, fife etc.) and song, dance (Highland, Set and Country dancing), poetry and prose, and performance".
In the latest Ulster-Scots revival there has been particular focus on migration history, language and music. This is evidenced for example by the development of the Ulster American Folk Park with its Annual Appalachian & Bluegrass Music Festival and by the setting up of several Northern Irish "Ullans", bluegrass, gospel and country influenced groups. Yet another example of this phenomenon is to be found in the launch in 2004 of the musical and "oratorio", On Eagle's Wing, (named after one of the first vessels to carry Ulster emigrants to North America) which purports to "celebrate the history of the Scots-Irish over 500 years" in music and dance. An exploration of the latest Ulster-Scots revival raises interesting issues of cultural, political and religious identification. Revivals in general tend to reinterpret the past in accordance with a need for "imagined communities" in the present (Benedict Anderson, Georgina Boyes), often using language and music as potential markers of group identity. To what extent is the Ulster-Scots revival a spontaneous aesthetic movement and to what extent has it been culturally and politically manufactured by ideologists and politicians? To what extent does the process of Ulster-Scots revival mirror other popular revivals of folk and traditional culture?
This article will explore the links between cultural politics, in the context of the Belfast Agreement and devolution, and the revival of interest in Ulster-Scots history, language and music.

Key words: Ulster-Scots, Scots Irish, folk revival, Ullans, On Eagle's Wing, "My Ain Countrie", The Northern Ireland Peace Agreement, The Belfast Agreement, The North/South Language Body, Foras na Gaeilge, Tha Boord o Ulster-Scotch, The North South Ministerial Council

References

  1. Cooper, David. The Musical Traditions of Northern Ireland and Its Diaspora: Community and Conflict. Farnham: Ashgate, 2009. Print.
  2. Dowling, Martin W. "Confusing Culture and Politics: Ulster Scots Culture and Music. " New Hibernia Review 11. 3 (2007): pp. 51–80. Print.
  3. Hastings, Gary. With Fife & Drum: Music, Memories and Customs of an Irish Tradition. Belfast: Blackstaff, 2003. Print.
  4. Huntingdon, Gale (Ed). Sam Henry's Songs of the People. Athens, Ga: The University of Georgia Press, 1990. Print.
  5. McNamee, Peter (Ed). Traditional Music: Whose Music?: Proceedings of a Co-operation North Conference, 1991. Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, the Queen's University of Belfast, 1992. Print.
  6. O'Shea, Helen. The Making of Irish Traditional Music. Cork: Cork University Press, 2008. Print.
  7. Vallely, Fintan. Tuned Out: Traditional Music and Identity in Northern Ireland. Cork: Cork University Press, 2008. Print.
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Dmitry MARTYNOV

Russia, Kazan.
Institute of International Relations,
History and Oriental Studies, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University.
D. Hist, ass. prof.

How Confucius was Tampered by Spencer, or Vanity of Conservative Modernism

The article considers the ideological situation in China in the transitive period (1890–1911). Under the influence of foreign factors there was a radical change in cultural priorities, and there was a problem of building a new Weltanschauung, replacing the official Confucianism. Social Darwinism became one of the main guidelines for Chinese intellectuals in this period. . An attempt to use it in the socio-cultural environment, mainly traditionally oriented, led to the outbreak of racism. As the result of political disintegration, by the 1920s a number of leading intellectuals had a defeatist attitude and the desire to give up not only the national culture, but also the racial type.

Key words: cultural genesis, Confucianism, Great Unity, Social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer, Kang Youwei, Yan Fu, racism

References

  1. Wang Yi Chu. Chinese Intellectuals and the West, 1872–1949. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1966. 557 p.
  2. Pusey J.R. China and Charles Darvin. Cambridge (Mass.): Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard Univ. Press, 1983. 544 p.
  3. Chang Hao. The Chinese Intellectuals in Crisis: Search for Order and Meaning (1890–1911). Berkeley: Univ. of Cali-fornia Press, 1987. – X, 223 p.
  4. Land Without Ghosts: Chinese Impressions of America from the Mid-Nineteenth Century to the Present / Ed. by R. David Arkush, Leo O. Lee. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1993. 309 p.
  5. Li Jing. China's America: The Chinese View the United States, 1900–2000. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 2012. 302 p.
  6. Jo Sasaki 佐々木揚. Sinmacu Tju:goku ni okjeru Nihonkan to Sjejjokan (清末中国における日本観と西洋観, Vzgljady na Japoniju i Zapad v Kitae v pozdnjuju Cinskuju jepohu). Tokio: Dajgaku sjopankaj, 2000. 304 s.
  7. Boroh L.N. Obshhestvennaja mysl' Kitaja i socializm (nachalo HH v.). M.: Nauka, GRVL, 1984. 296 s.
  8. Boroh L.N. Konfucianstvo i evropejskaja mysl' na rubezhe XIX–HH vv. Ljan Ci-chao: teorija obnovlenija naroda. M.: Vost. lit., 2001. 287 s.
  9. Chang Hao. The Chinese Intellectuals in Crisis. P. 1.
  10. Martynov D.E. Inostrannye missionery v Kitae XIX–nachala HH v.: specifika dejatel'nosti (na primere provincii Shan'dun) // Vestnik Tatarskogo gosudarstvennogo gumanitarno-pedagogicheskogo universiteta. 2008. Vyp. 3(14). S. 40–45.
  11. Levenson J. Confucian China and its Modern Fate. Berkeley: Univ/ of California Press, 1958. P. XIII–XIX.
  12. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature / Ed. by Kang-i Sun Chang, Stephen Owen. Vol. 2: From 1375. Cambridge: Univ. Press, 2010. P. 422–427.
  13. Kaske E. The Politics of Language in Chinese Education, 1895–1919. Leiden, 2008. P. 250–272.
  14. Krushin-skij A.A. Tvorchestvo Jan' Fu i problema perevoda. M.: Nauka, 1989. S. 39
  15. Tjan' jan' lun' / Hjesjujli chzhje, Jan' Fu i 天演论 / 赫胥黎著严复译 (Teorija prirodnogo razvitija / Avtor Geksli, per. Jan' Fu). Pekin: Shan#u inshuguan' chuban', 1981. S. 21.
  16. Schwartz B. In Search of Wealth and Power: Yen Fu and the West. Cambridge (Mass.): Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1964. R. 98.
  17. Van Shi 王栻. Jan' Fu chzhuan' 嚴復傳 (Biografija Jan' Fu). Shanhaj: Shanhaj zhjen'min' chuban'shje, 1957. S. 34.
  18. Dikotter F. The Discourse of Race in Modern China. Stanford: Univ. Press, 1992. P. 108–109.
  19. Pik populjarnosti evgeniki v Kitae prishjolsja na 1920-e gg.
  20. Teng E. Eurasian Hybridity in Chinese Utopian Visions: From "One World" to "A Society Based on Beauty" and Beyond // Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique. 2006. Vol. 14, No 1. P. 136.
  21. Kan Ju-vjej 康有为. Da tun shu Kan Ju-vjej chzhuan' / Tan Chzhi-czjun' daodu 大同书康有为撰 / 汤志钧导读 (Kni-ga o Velikom edinenii Kan Ju-vjeja / Predislovie Tan Chzhi-czjunja). Shanhaj: Shanhaj guczi chuban'shje, 2005. S. 113–114.
  22. Sakamoto Hiroko. The Cult of "Love and Eugenics" in May Fourth Movement Discourse // Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique. 2004. No 12. R. 333–334.
  23. Martynov D.E. Daosskaja utopija Taj pin: politicheskie i jeticheskie as-pekty // Uchjonye zapiski Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2006. T. 148, kn. 4. S. 106–119.
  24. Martynov D.E. Klassifikacija utopizma Lju Zhjen'hana (iz istorii osvoenija jesteticheskogo prostranstva zapadnoj civilizacii v Kitae) // Obshhestvo i gosudarstvo v Kitae: XXXVIII nauchnaja konferencija. M.: Vost. lit., 2008. S. 158–164.
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Fanny DAUBIGNY

Los Angeles, USA.
California State University Fullerton.
PhD. Associate Professor,
International Business Coordinator.

Exilic Selves, Surrogate Identities, Remote Spaces. Is there a Human in this Room?

This paper proposes to re-assess, in the light of the profound ecological, technological and cultural transformations brought about by the anthropocene, the relevance of traditional philosophies of humanism. With ever-shifting concepts of identities, how long will philosophies of the rational subject still prove to be sustainable?
In the wake of post-humanist philosophers such as Clément Rosset (Loin de Moi, 1999) and Jonathan Crary (24/7, Late forms of Capitalism and Sleep, 2013), this study seeks to examine and interrogate the symptomology of a scopic pulse (a sight-dominated zeitgeist) that has profusely pervaded the contemporary discourse of the hard (and the social sciences). The approach of this paper will be multidisciplinary in its scope and will borrow from various areas (neuro-science, technology, philosophy, literature, cinema, psychiatry, economy etc.) to set into a new context the rhetorical question: Is there a human in this room?
To answer this question, one may choose to ask: has the über-neuronal science fiction woman character Lucy (Besson, 2014) become our new cultural paradigm?
This is your brain on T. V.
Watch out.

Key words: Identity, humanism ,Subjectivity, Philosophy, Gender, Neuro-science, Capitalism

References

  1. Clément Rosset., Loin de Moi, Minuit, 1999.
  2. Notice biographique rédigée par Michaux lui-même. Henri Michaux, Oeuvres complètes, « Bibliothèque de la Pléiade », Gallimard, 2004.
  3. Martin Heidegger, Les Lettres sur l'Humanisme, Galliamard, 1946.
  4. Jean-Michel Besnier, Demain les posthumains: Le futur a-t-il encore besoin de nous ? Fayard, 2010.
  5. P. Sloterdijk, Règles pour le parc humain, Mille et Une Nuits, 2000, traduit par Olivier Mannoni.
  6. Marcel Proust, A La Recherche du Temps Perdu, Gallimard (1987), T.I. p.3.
  7. Rappelons en effet le ton parlementaire du registre emprunté par Montaigne dans les Essais : « Ici n'est qu'un registre des essais de ma vie.» (III, 13).
  8. James Maxfield, The fatal woman : sources of male anxiety in American film noir, 1941–1991, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996.
  9. Antonin Artaud, Le Théâtre et son Double, Gallimard, 1964.
  10. Flaubert utilisait la technique du « gueuloir » : il passait toutes ses phrases à l'épreuve du gueuloir pour vérifier la justesse de leur style.
  11. Jacques Prévert, Paroles, Gallimard, 1946.
  12. Jean de Mutigny, Victor Hugo et le spiritisme, Nathan,‎ 1981.
  13. Michel Foucauld, Surveiller et Punir, Gallimard, 1975.
  14. Jonathan Crary, 24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep, Verso, 2013.
  15. Auguste De Villiers De L'isle-Adam, l'Eve Future, Gallimard, 1993.
  16. Lucy comme doyenne du futur et héroïne du dernier film de Luc Besson (2014).
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Olga BURUKINA

Russia, Moscow.
Higher School of Economics. National Research University.
Philosophy brunch, department of cultural studies, PhD. Associate professor.

Ethnocultural Stereotypes as "Solid Residual" of National Cultures

The article raises a number of issues connected with stereotypes and stereotyping focusing on the mechanism of stereotyping, its functions, its significance as a kind of cognitive human activity for personal development and that of ethnosocial groups. Highlighting the emotional origin of ethnocultural stereotypes, the author steps aside from the trodden paths and argues that stereotyping is closely connected with connotation and the mechanism of connoting and that its role of 'solid residual' for vanished nations and cultures (be it positive or negative) is very important.

Key words: cognitive activity, stereotyping, connoting, connotation, roles and functions of stereotypes

References

  1. Alefirenko N. F. Jazykovye stereotipy russkogo jetnokul'turnogo prostranstva // Przegląd Wschodnioeuropejski 1, 2010. Pp. 405–424. http://dspace.bsu.edu.ru/bitstream/
    123456789/815/1/Alefirenko_Yzikov.pdf
  2. Arsel'gov A. U. Jetnicheskie stereotipy v kul'ture. Dis. kand. filos. n.: 24. 00. 01 — Teorija i istorija kul'tury. — Rostov-na-Donu, 2011. — 147 s.
  3. Berdjaev N. A. Sud'ba Rossii. — M., 2005. –135 s.
  4. Burukina O. A. Konnotativnoe pole slova. — M.: Pisatel', 2005. — 426 s.
  5. Burukina O. A. Konnotacija i konnotativnoe pole slova // Filologija i kul'tura: Mat-ly VI Mezhdunar. nauch. konf. 17–19 oktjabrja 2007 g. — Tambov: Izd-vo TGU im. G. R.  Derzhavina, 2007. — S. 591–594.
  6. Burukina O. A. Konnotacija kak gnoseologicheskaja universalija // Voprosy kognitivnoj lingvistiki. Vyp. 1, 2011. — S. 111–114.
  7. Burukina O. A. Konnotacija kak kreativnyj psiholingvisticheskij mehanizm v soznanii individa // Voprosy kognitivnoj lingvistiki. Vyp. 4, 2011. — S. 132–136.
  8. Golovin S. Ju. Slovar' prakticheskogo psihologa. — Minsk: Harvest, 1998.
  9. Dyer, Richard (2013) The Matter of Images: Essays on Representations. Routledge. 184 p.
  10. Jannot, Jean-René (2005) Religion in Ancient Etruria. Univ. of Wisconsin Press. 229 p.
  11. Kiklevich A. Pritjazhenie jazyka, t. 1: Semantika. Lingvistika teksta. Kommunikativnaja lingvistika. — Olsztyn, 2007. — C. 180.
  12. Kosharnaja S. A. Jazykovaja lichnost' v kontekste jetnokul'tury: Uchebnoe posobie. — M.: Direkt-Media, 2014. — 219 s.
  13. Kukla, Andre (2007) Mental Traps: The Overthinker's Guide to a Happier Life. Published by Anchor, Canada, 256 p.
  14. LSK — Russkoe kul'turnoe prostranstvo: Lingvokul'turologicheskij slovar'. Vyp. 1 // I. S.  Briljova, N. P.  Vol'skaja, D. B.  Gudkov, I. V.  Zaharenko, V. V.  Krasnyh. — M., 2004.
  15. Maslova V. A. Lingvokul'turologija: Ucheb. Posobie dlja stud. vyssh. ucheb. Zavedenij. — M.: Akademija, 2001. — 208 s.
  16. Mental'nye lovushki. Kratkij konspekt knigi A.  Kukla «Mental'nye lovushki». Jel. resurs. Data obrashhenija — 16. 09. 2014. URL: http://tsuslik.ru/mentaltrap
  17. Munin A. N. (2013) Delovoe obshhenie: Kurs lekcij (str. 6). Jel. Resurs. Data obrashhenija — 18. 09. 2014. URL: http://thelib.ru/books/a_n_munin/delovoe_obschenie_kurs_lekciy-read-6.html
  18. Muromoto, Wayne (2003). Mudra in the Martial Arts. Retrieved on December 20, 2007. http://www.furyu.com/?f
  19. Russkoe kul'turnoe prostranstvo: Lingvokul'turologicheskij slovar'. Vyp. 1. I. S.  Briljova, N. P.  Vol'skaja, D. B.  Gudkov, I. V.  Zaharenko, V. V.  Krasnyh. — Moskva, 2004.
  20. Quadflieg, Susanne & Macrae, C. Neil (2011): Stereotypes and stereotyping: What's the brain got to do with it?, European Review of Social Psychology, DOI:10. 1080/10463283. 2011. 627998Psihologicheskij glossarij. Jel. resurs. Data obrashhenija — 15. 09. 2014. URL: http://www.psychologies.ru/glossary/dict/15/
  21. Sergeeva G. G. Nacional'no-precedentnye imena v vosprijatii podrostkov // Vestnik VGU, Serija lingvistika i mezhkul'turnaja kommunikacija, 2003, № 2. — S. 27–34.
  22. Sorokin Ju. A. Stereotip, shtamp, klishe: K probleme opredelenija ponjatij // Obshhenie: Teoreticheskie i pragmaticheskie problemy. — M., 1978.
  23. Sorokin Ju. A. Psiholingvisticheskie aspekty izuchenija teksta. — M.: Nauka, 1985.
  24. Stepanov Ju. S. Konstanty. Slovar' russkoj kul'tury. — M., 1997. — S. 41.
  25. Chugreev V. Stereotipy 2006 // Iskusstvo strategii i stalkinga. Jel. resurs. Data obrashhenija — 18. 09. 2014. URL: http://chugreev.ru/s-article/stereotype.html
  26. Shapovalov M. O.   Osobennosti jetnokul'turnyh stereotipov v jumoristicheskih tekstah (na materiale francuzskogo i ital'janskogo jazykov) // Vestnik Cheljabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2012. № 5 (259). Filologija. Iskusstvovedenie. Vyp. 63. — S. 176–179.
  27. Shirokogorov S. M. Jetnos: Issledovanie osnovnyh principov izmenenija jetnicheskih i jetnograficheskih javlenij. — Shanhaj, 1923.
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Essay

Gerald CIPRIANI

Galway, Republic of Ireland.
National University of Ireland.
PhD, Chief Editor of Culture and Dialogue, General Editor of Figural,
Co-Editor in Chief of Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology.

Dwelling in the light of the Thou, Or the Art of the Opening Space

This essay draws a parallel between Martin Heidegger's reflection on our growing inability to 'dwell' in the world of techniques in his text "Building Dwelling Thinking" (Bauen Wohnen Denken) and Gabriel Marcel's concern about the fading of 'availability' (disponibilité) in contemporary society. The essay reflects on those concerns with particular reference to cross-cultural aesthetic experiences, and argues that both our ability to dwell and willingness to be available are ethical prerequisites for meaningful creative cultural experiences.

Key words: Cross-cultural experience; phenomenology; ethics; Martin Heidegger; technology; Gabriel Marcel; availability

References

  1. Heidegger, M. (1971) 'Building Dwelling Thinking' in Poetry, Language, Thought, trans. A. Hofstadter, New York: Harper & Row, p. 149.
  2. 'Bauen Wohnen Denken' in Vorträge und Aufsätze, Klett-Cotta, 1967.
  3. Heidegger (1971), op. cit., p. 154.
  4. Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962) 'Introduction: Traditional Prejudices and the Return to the Phenomena'; 'Part One: The Body'; and 'Part Two: The World as Perceived' in Phenomenology of Perception, trans. C. Smith, London: Routledge, pp. 3-63; pp. 67-199; pp. 203-365.
  5. Merleau-Ponty (1962), 'Temporality' in op. cit., pp. 410-433.
  6. Worner K. H. & Hopkins, B. eds. (1977) Stockhausen: Life and Work, Berkeley: University of California Press. And also Cott , J. (1973) Stockhausen: Conversations With the Composer, London: Simon & Schuster.
  7. Gerhart's 'The Live Metaphor' in The Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur, ed. L. E. Hahn (1995), Chicago and La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, pp. 216-217.
  8. Cooper J.-C. (1972) 'Wou-Wei' in Taoism, The Way of the Mystic, Wellingborough: The Aquarium Press, Chap. 7.
  9. Lin Yutang (1998) The Importance of Living, London: Quiller Press.
  10. Buber, M. (2002), op. cit., p. 5: '… where unreserved has ruled, even wordlessly …, the word of dialogue has happened sacramentally'.
  11. Freeland, C. (2001) But Is It Art?, Oxford: Oxford University press, p. 43.
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Fashion Studies

Anna KONEVA

St. Petersburg, Russia.
Northwest Branch of Russian Research Institute
for Cultural and Natural Heritage D. S. Likhachyov's name. PhD.

Image of Locus: Street Fashion as a Distinctive Way of Self-Representation

The article investigates the urban street fashion as a specific implementation of national social imagery about the fashionable image. It isobvious that fashion is a product of the city, and that there are non-national conventional fashion codes. However, at the same time we are talking about Parisian style and the style of New York, Japanese street fashion and street fashion in Copenhagen, we can easily describe even the difference between fashionable dressing on the streets of Moscow and of St. Petersburg. Thus, in the framework of universal fashion codes, there are specific narratives that define the norms of self-representation and the formation of "a fashionable image" of various cities. As a rule these are capital cities. How are these narratives created and how do they influence the formation of an image? How is street fashion formed and how is it different to the fashion of catwalks? What is a fashionable city? The purpose of the article is to see street fashion as a particular way of creating an image.

Key words: Image, narrative, fashion, urban fashion, the national idea, identity

References

  1. Zamjatin D.N. Kul'tura i prostranstvo. Modelirovanie geograficheskih obrazov. [Jelektronnyj resurs, data obrashhenija: 31.09.2014] URL: http://thelib.ru/books/dmitriy_nikolaevich_zamyatin/
    kultura_i_prostranstvo_modelirovanie_geograficheskih_obrazov-read.html — C. 10.
  2. King C.W. Jr. Fashion Adoption: A Rebbutal to the «Trickle Down» Theory / Ed. S.A.Greyser // Proceedings of the American Marketing Associations. — Chicago: American Marketing Associations, 1963, P. 108–125.
  3. Field G. The Status Float Fenomenon — The Upward Diffusion of Innovation // Business Horizons. — 1970. — No. 13 (August). — P.45–52.
  4. Hebdidge R. Subculture: Meaning of Style. Analiz osnovnyh pozicij sm.: Svendsen L. Filosofija mody. — s. 193–195.
  5. Zamjatin D.N. Gumanitarnaja geografija: prostranstvo, voobrazhenie i vzaimodejstvie sovremennyh gumanitarnyh nauk. // Sociologicheskoe obozrenie. T. 9. № 3. 2010. S. 26 — 50. — S. 35.
  6. Rocamora A. Fashioning the city. Paris, fashion and the media. — London, I.B.Tauris&Co Ltd., 2009.
  7. Uilson Je. Oblachennye v mechty. Moda i sovremennost'./ per. s angl. — M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2012. — S. 140.
  8. Hajns T., Brjus M. Marketing v industrii mody. / per.s angl. E.B. Ivanovoj, n.red. O.Ju. Rapacevich. — Minsk: Grevcov Pablisher, 2009. — 416 s. — S. 323.
  9. Pereskaz citaty iz: Markus S. Sekrety ideal'nogo magazina. / per.s angl. I. Radjushkinoj. — M.: Mann, Ivanov i Ferber, 2009. — 272 s. — S. 241–242.
  10. Gofman A.B. Moda i ljudi. Novaja teorija mody i modnogo povedenija. — SPb,: Piter, 2004 — s. 119–125.
  11. Calcutt A. Arrested Development: Pop Culture and the Erosion of Adulthood. London: Cassell, 1998.
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Visual Studies

Vladimir LAPTEV

St. Petersburg, Russia.
Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnical University.
PhD. Associate professor.

Thematic Cartography as the Special Direction of Information Design

In this article, thematic cartography is considered an integral part of the information and cultural human space, as a special direction in information design. The author considers types of thematic maps, their characteristics, describes technological and aesthetic issues related to transforming the topographic base. The author specifies problems of automation in cybercartography: a lack of creative component, a lack of consideration of the role of visual perception, in particular there are composite inconsistencies in the level of detail and technical requirements of color aesthetics.
It is pointed out that the designer-cartographer constructs a thematic map and sets in graphical form semiotic connections between characters and certain properties or phenomena. This also allows for a resolution of the composite, typographical and coloristic problems of constructing thematic maps and their legends in accordance with the objectives of creating. Clarity, accuracy and conciseness in transmitting the maps' contents are combined with the aesthetics of visual perception. The main reason for the submission of design maps as art-project activity lies in the balance between art and utility . Therefore, thematic maps, along with charts, network connections and sign systems can be considered part of infographics. In this regard, the creation of thematic maps, along with the formalization of the process and the use of new media resources should take into account the aesthetic component results: composition, color use, typography, etc. For this, those skilled in the art should have a basic knowledge in the field of graphic design.

Key words: thematic cartography, thematic map, statistical map, topographical base, cartography design, information design, infographics, visualization

References

  1. Berljant, A. M. Kartografija / A. M. Berljant ; MGU im. M. V. Lomonosova. 3-e izd., dop. M.: Universitet, 2011. 447 s.
  2. Byzov, L. A. Graficheskie metody v statistike, planirovanii i uchjote / L. A. Byzov ; predisl. akad. S. G. Strumilina. M. -L.: Gosplanizdat, 1940. 244 s.
  3. Vashhuk, O. A. Shvejcarskaja shkola graficheskogo dizajna. Stanovlenie i razvitie internacional'nogo stilja tipografiki : monografija / O. A. Vashhuk ; poslesl. S. I. Serova. SPb.: FGBOU VPO «SPGUTD», 2013. 304 s.
  4. Vinogradov, N. V. Karty i atlasy / N. V. Vinogradov. M. -L.: Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1941. 192 s.
  5. Vostokova, A. V. Oformlenie kart. Komp'juternyj dizajn / A. A. Vostokova, S. M. Koshel', L. A. Ushakova ; pod red. A. V. Vostokovoj. M.: Aspekt Press, 2002. 288 s.
  6. Laptev, V.  V. Izobrazitel'naja statistika. Vvedenie v infografiku / V. V. Laptev. SPb.: Jejdos, 2012. 180 s.
  7. Laptev, V. V. Koloristicheskie shemy infografiki / V. V. Laptev // Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta tehnologii i dizajna. Serija 2: Iskusstvovedenie. Filologicheskie nauki. 2013. № 4. S. 32–39.
  8. Laptev, V. V. Illjustrativnye obrazy infografiki / V. V. Laptev // Dekorativnoe iskusstvo i predmetno-prostranstvennaja sreda. Vestnik MGHPA im. S. G. Stroganova. 2014. № 1. S. 236–247.
  9. Lebedev, P. P. Novaja traktovka teorii i metodov izobrazhenija informacii na geograficheskih kartah / P. P. Lebedev // Izvestija vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij. Geodezija i ajerofotos#emka. 2013. № 3. S. 42–49.
  10. Mitin, I. I. Kul'turnaja geografija v SSSR i postsovetskoj Rossii: istorija (vos)stanovlenija i faktory samobytnosti / I. I. Mitin // Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal issledovanij kul'tury. 2011. 4 (5). S. 19–25.
  11. Preobrazhenskij, A. I. Russkie jekonomicheskie karty i atlasy / A. I. Preobrazhenskij. M.: Geografgiz, 1953. 330 s.
  12. Salishhev, K. A. Osnovy kartovedenija / K. A. Salishhev. 3-e izd., pererab. M.: Geodezizdat, 1962. 176 s.
  13. Salishhev, K. A. Sovremennye problemy tematicheskogo kartografirovanija SSSR / K. A. Salishhev. M.: Mosk. gos. un-t, 1966. 21 s.
  14. Bertin, J. Semiology of Graphics. Diagrams. Networks. Maps / Jacques Bertin. Redlans : Esri Press, 2011. 438 p.
  15. Brewer, C. A. Basic Mapping Principles for Visualizing Cancer Data Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) / Cynthia A. Brewer // American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2006. № 30 (2S). P. S25–S36.
  16. Buchroithner, M. The New Face of Cartography / M. Buchroithner, G. Gartner // GIM International. 2013. № 6 (27). P. 22–27.
  17. Cerba, O. Web Services for Thematic Maps / O. Cerba, J. Cepicky // Online Maps with APIs and WebServices / ed. M. P. Peterson. Springer, 2012. P. 141–155.
  18. Das, T. Conflicts in neogeography maps / T. Das, C. P. J. M. van Elzakker, M.-J. Kraak // Proceedings of the 2012 AutoCarto International Symposium on Automated Cartography. Columbus, September 16–18, 2012. URL: http://www.cartogis.org/docs/proceedings
    /2012/Das_etal_AutoCarto2012.pdf (data obrashhenija: 20.07.2014).
  19. Imhof, E. Thematische Kartographie / Eduard Imhof. Berlin-NY : W. De Gruyter, 1972. 360 s.
  20. Rimbert, S. Cartes et graphiques / Sylvie Rimbert. Paris : SEDES, 1964. 236 p.
  21. Touya, G. Détection d'incohérences de niveau de détail dans des données collaboratives / Guillaume Touya, Carmen Brando // CFC. 2013. № 217. P. 59–71.
  22. Zentai, L. Geospatial information access and representation: the ICA's view on today's cartography / László Zentai // Interjekspo Geo-Sibir'. 2014. B. n. S. 72–82.
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Film Studies

Olga KIRILLOVA

Ukraine, Kiev.
National Pedagogical University named after M. P. Dragomanov.
The Department of cultural science. PhD in philosophy, senior lecturer.

Anton Chekhov as a Father of Post-Modernist Language in Post-Soviet Cinema

Chekhovian motives and dialogues as stimuli for the development of Post-Modernist cinematic language in the Post-Soviet film are explored in the article using examples from the works of Russian and Ukrainian film directors S.Solovyov ("Three Sisters", 1994, "On the Love", 2004), K.Muratova ("Chekhovian Motives", 2002), K.Serebrennikov ("Ragin", 2003), S.Ovcharov ("The Orchard", 2008), K.Shakhnazarov ("Ward #6", 2009), V.Dubrovitsky ("Ivanov", 2011) et al.

Key words: Chekovian paradigm in the film, Chekhovian type of dialogue, Post-Modernist cinematic language, work with Chekhov as 'pop-material

References

  1. Gorjacheva M. Zachem im Chehov? (Kinofil'my «Cvety kalenduly», «Nebo v almazah», «Moskva») // Chehovskij vestnik. M., 2001. № 8. S. 111.
  2. Gorjacheva M. «Chehovskie motivy» Kiry Muratovoj. // Chehovskij vestnik. M., 2002. № 11. S. 135.
  3. Gul'chenko V. Chehov v «datskom kino». // Chehovskij vestnik. M., 2005. № 16. S. 35–36.
  4. «Shum vіtru» (Materіali kruglogo stolu). // Kіno-Teatr. K., 2002. №5. S.34.
  5. Bykov D. Deti Chehova. // Ogonjok. M., 2002. №52. S.40.
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Art Studies

Vyacheslav SHESTAKOV

Russia, Moscow.
PhD, Professor.

John Maynard Keynes: Intellectualism and Cultura

John Maynard Keynes was a distinguished English economist and philosopher. Today some authors consider that he led Europe out of economic crisis in the 1930s and out of stagnation after the 2nd World War. Keynes organized an international center of intellectualism in Cambridge, which included the best minds of England, Germany, Italy, and Russia. He also tried to improve relations between England and Soviet Russia. Married to a Russian ballet dancer Lydia Lopuchova, he visited Russia several times and made a professional objective analysis of the Russian economy. He was also interested in art, collected books, manuscripts and paintings. His intellectualism is very important today, when nationalism, anti-intellectualism and a new type of fascism are rapidly developing.

Key words: intellectualism, nationalism, Leninism, University, college, crisis, philosophy

References

  1. Skidelsky R. John Maynard Keyns. The Economist as Savior. New York-London, 1992. P. 537
  2. Person J. The Cultural Contradiction of J.M.Keynes // "The New Criterion", May, 2009. P. 4
  3. Allen P. The Cambridge Apostles. — Cambridge. 1978. P. 218.
  4. Russel B. Autobiography. — London. 1978. P. 69.
  5. Harrod R. F. The Life of John Maynard Keynes. — N.Y. 1966. P.161.
  6. Keynes J. M. The Economic Consequences of the Peace. London. 1871. P.9.
  7. Keynes J. M. Essays in Biography // The Collected Writings of J.M.Keynes, vol.X, London. 1972. P. 54.
  8. Keynes J. M. The Economic Consequences of the Peace. London. 1871. P. 9.
  9. Keynes J. M. National Self-Sufficiency. P. 8.
  10. Lydia and Maynard. Letter between Lydia Lopokova and John Maynard Keynes. — Cambridge, 1989. P. 162.
  11. Keynes J.M. Treaty of Peace. P.5.
  12. Shestakov V. P. Uinston Cherchill'. Mezhdu parlamentom i palitroj. M., «Aletejja». 2004.
  13. Kejns Dzh. M. Jekonomicheskie posledstvija mistera Cherchillja. — L.: Gosizdat, 1927. S. 7.
  14. Berlin I. Mr. Churchill in 1940. — London. 1964. P. 8.
  15. Keynes J. M. Essays in Biography // The Collected Writings of J. M. Keynes. 1972. Vol. X, r.57.
  16. Berlin I. Istorija svobody. — M., 2001, s. 9.
  17. Keynes M. Collector of painting, books and manyscripts. Ed by D.Scrase and P.Croft. Cambridge. 1983. P.11.
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