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#1(18) 2015: The Ecology of Culture
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Topic of the Issue



Istvan MAGYARI BECK

Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary.
Professor Emeritus, PhD, Candidate of Sciences.
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Olga SZUCS

University of Debrecen, Hungary.
Reader in University, PhD, Candidate of Sciences.
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Dmitry REUT

Sholokhov Moscow State University of Humanities, Moscow State Technical University named after N.E. Bauman, Russia.
Professor, Dr in economics, Docent, Associate Professor
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Hygiene of Culture as the "Strong" version of Cultural Ecology

Mankind's cultural environment is at present unsatisfactory. This is the most serious problem. The methods of cultural ecology currently in existence are not energetic enough. We suggest developing them in a direction that we conditionally name hygienic. This suggestion can be interpreted as a specification, i.e. emphasising hygiene within the structure of ecology science. The hygiene of culture is called upon to retain measurable conditions for the trends of public consciousness and mass cultural practices inside the evolutionary corridor. It is necessary to discuss the disposition of the borders of this corridor and methods of work with these borders. The development of a hygiene of culture involves providing conditions for reproducing culture, its mechanisms and organic structures, outside of any temporary restrictions. Culture has to enable the viability of society, and the viability of the individual. The hygiene of culture raises topical issues and offers means for their solution. It has every reason to grow into an actual self-contained scientific discipline.

Key words: social body, safe keeping, innovation, crisis, European Culture, health, value, medicine, self-identification, actor, evolution, self- regulation, creativity, paradoxicality, tectonic shift, subject.

References

  • Novikov A.M., Novikov D.A., Metodologiya. - M., «Urss», 2014. -668 s.
  • Kagan M. Filosofiya kulturyi. SPb., 1996. – 415 s.
  • Lihachev D.S. Ekologiya kulturyi // Proshloe – buduschemu. - Leningrad, Nauka, 1985. - S.50-62.
  • Genisaretskiy O.I. Ekologiya kulturyi: ot tsennostnyih orientatsii — k proektnoy kontseptualistike // Ekologiya kulturyi. Teoreticheskie i proektnyie problemyi. M.: Vserossiyskiy institut kulturologii, 1991 // URL:http://prometa.ru/olegen/publications/45.
  • Rappoport A.G., Somov A.S. Problema formyi v arhitekture. - M.: Stroyizdat, 1990.
  • Meditsinskaya entsiklopediya http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_medicine/8341/
  • Tihonov A.V., Sotsiologiya upravleniya. M.: «KANON ». – 2007. – 472 s.
  • Kultura i gigiena. Gumanizm kak potrebnost. Materialyi kruglogo stola «Gigiena kulturyi – kulturologicheskiy obzor», organizovannogo Assotsiatsiey «Za vengersko- rossiyskoe sotrudnichestvo im. L. N. Tolstogo» v Vengerskom kulturnom tsentre v Moskve 30 maya - 1 iyunya 2012 g. Budapesht: Assotsiatsiya im. L.N. Tolstogo. Izd-vo Kairos. – 2012 – 416 s.; Kulturs es higienia. A humanizmus mint szukseglet. A Tolstoj Tarsasag a Maguar-Orosz Egyttmukodesesrt Egyesulet es a Moszkvai Maguar Kulturalis Kozpont “A kultura higieniaja – kulturologiai attekintes“ cimmel 2012. majus 31 – 1 – jen megrendezett kerekasztala anyagaibol keszult tanulmanykotet. Budapest: TolsztojTarsasag. KairoszKiado. – 2012.– 416 old.
  • Fenomen odinochestva. Aktualnyie voprosyi gigienyi kulturyi: Kollektivnaya monografiya / Otv. redaktoryi M.V.Biryukova, A.V.Lyashko, A.A.Nikonova. – SPb: RHGA, 2014. – 368 s. The Phenomenon of Loneliness. Actual Questions of Hygiene of Culture: Collective monograph// Resp. editors M. V. Biryukova, A. V. Lyashko, A. A. Nikonova, – St.Petersburg, 2014. – 368 s.
  • Kul'tura i gigiyena 2. Rabota prodolzhayetsya / red.: I. Mad"yari-Bek, Syuch O. Budapesht: Kairos. 2014. – 290 s.; Kultura es Higienia 2. Amunkafolytatodik. / Szerkesztette: Dr. MagyariBeckIstvan, Dr. SzucsOlga. KairoszKiado. Budapest, 2014. – 561 old.
  • Khantington S. Stolknoveniye tsivilizatsiy. - M.: OOO «Izdatel'stvo AST», 2003. – 603 s.
  • Fundamental'nyye problemy kul'turologii / Otv. redaktor D.L. Spivak. – M., SPb.: Aleteyya, Novyy khronograf, Eydos. T. 1, 2008. – 432 s., T. 2, 2008. – 360 s., T. 3, 2008. – 518 s., T. 4, 2008. – 424 s., T. 5, 2009. – 624 s., T. 6, 2009. – 376 s., T. 7, 2009. – 256 s.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. FlOW The Psychology of optimal experience. - HARPER and ROW PUBLISHERS. New York 1990. - 304 p.
  • Godel, K. In: David Crystal (ed.) The Cambridge Encyclopedia. - Cambridge University Press, 1990. - P. 510 – 511.
  • Dawkins, R. The Selfish Gene. - Oxford University Press. Oxford, 1976. - 384 p.
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Anna GUSEVA

Russian State Hydrometeorological University (RSHU), Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Department of Social and Humanitarian Sciences.
Associate Professor, PhD in Philosophy.

Ecological Beauty: The Possibility of Typology

The article looks at various approaches to understanding the beauty of nature and ecological beauty, representing a historical illustration of the transition from classical aesthetics of nature to non-classical environmental (ecological) aesthetics. A comparison of the classical views of V. S. Solovyov with the aesthetic ideas of "the father of ecology" E. Haeckel and the modern version of environmental aesthetics shows the shift in thought from perceiving the beauty of nature as the embodiment of an objective idea to seeing it as complex, functional, abstract and conceptual, in a way similar to how we view abstract mathematical objects. Works of Solovyov about natural beauty and the meaning of art (1889, 1890) are well-known in aesthetics, unlike the aesthetic typology of Ernst Haeckel as put forward in the book "World Miracles". Haeckel is better known as the author of the artistic and popular scientific album «Beauty of Forms in Nature» («Kunstformen der Natur», 1899-1904) where the principles of the typology of natural beauty received a graphic embodiment. Haeckel's views are presented as being somewhat underestimated in Russian philosophical, aesthetic and cultural discourse. Today, Haeckel’s typology of the beauty of natural forms is used in so-called nature protection aesthetics, but in an incomplete and inexact form. The additional example of the modern typology of objects of ecological (environmental) aesthetics testifies to the necessity of considering ecological aesthetics as forms of philosophical anthropology.

Key words: aesthetics of nature, «Beauty in the nature», «Beauty of Forms in Nature» («Kunstformen der Natur»), E. Haeckel, ecological aesthetics, philosophical anthropology, environmental aesthetics, nature protection aesthetics.

References

  • Gekkel' E. Ucheniye ob organicheskikh formakh, osnovannoye na teorii prevrashcheniya vidov / Pod red. Il. Mechnikova. - SPb., 1869.
  • Shchedrina G.K. Ekologicheskaya estetika i universalizatsiya esteticheskogo // Estetika v interparadigmal'nom prostranstve: perspektivy novogo veka. Materialy nauchnoy konferentsii 10 oktyabrya 2001 g. - SPb., 2001.
  • Berleant A. The Aesthetics of Environment. Philadelphia, 1992; Berleant A. Living in the Landscape: Toward an Aesthetics of Environment. - Lawrence, 1997.
  • Man'kovskaya N.B. Estetika postmodernizma = Esthetique postmoderne. - SPb, 2000.
  • Solov'yev" V.S. Krasota v" prirode // Sobranie sochineniy Vladimira Serg?evicha Solov'yeva s" tremya portretami i avtografom". - SPb, 1911-1914 (faksimil'noye izdaniye). T. VI. - S. 33-74.
  • Solov'yev" V.S. Obshchiy smysl" iskusstva // Sobranie sochineniy Vladimira Serg?evicha Solov'yeva s" tremya portretami i avtografom". - SPb., 1911-1914 (faksimil'noye izdaniye). T. VI. - S. 75-96.
  • Hackel E. Kunstformen der Natur. - Leipzig-Wien, 1904. Uvidet' izobrazheniya v elektronnom variante mozhno zdes': http://caliban.mpipz.mpg.de/haeckel/kunstformen/natur.html.
  • Gekkel' E. Chudesa zhizni. Dop. tom k kn. o Mirovykh zagadkakh. - SPb., 1908.
  • Carlson A. Environmental Aesthetics // Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/environmental-aesthetics/. Data obrashcheniya 31.12.14.
  • Bychkov V.V. Estetika Vladimira Solov'yeva kak aktual'naya paradigma [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: http://philosophy.ru/library/bychkov/solov-f.html. Data obrashcheniya 31.12.14.
  • Boreyko V.Ye. Vvedeniye v prirodookhrannuyu estetiku. - Kiyev, 2001. - 198 s.
  • Pechko L.P. Vyrazitel'nost' estetiki prirody i kul'tura lichnosti. - Ul'yanovsk, 2008.
  • Estetika prirody / Redkol.: K.M. Dolgov i dr. - M., 1994.
  • Nikonova S.B. K voprosu ob ekologicheskom utopizme v estetike. Ekologicheskaya kritika kul'tury Dzh. Zerzana// Vestnik Leningradskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta im. A.S. Pushkina. Vyp. 2. T. 2, 2013. - S. 151.
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Vitaliy DARENSKIY

National Academy of Personnel Management, Ukraine, Kiev.
Center of Arts and Culture, Department of Theory and History of Culture.
Associate Professor, PhD in Philosophy.

The City as “Natural” and Nature as “Artificial” in the Existence of Contemporary Man.

This article looks at the philosophical problem of the “natural” and the “artificial” as basic constants of human existence. The concept of “city” is considered as a category of philosophical anthropology and as one of the fundamental forms of the human worldview. This concept makes it possible to discover hidden dimensions of human existence and cultural forms of being. The article analyses the specifics of the “philosophy of the City” as a phenomenon of existential travel and of the institutionalization of the human subject. The concept of “urban existence” is shown to be a medium for a holistic worldview. This conception of the city enables us to consider the uniqueness of personal life, endowed with its own special meaning.

Key words: Nature, Artificial, City, Worldview, Existence, Philosophy.

References

  • Antsiferov N.P. «Nepostizhimyy gorod...» Dusha Peterburga. – L.: LGU, 1991. – 236 s.
  • Veber M. Gorod // Veber M. Istoriya khozyaystva. Gorod. – M.: «Kuchkovo pole», 2001. – S. 376-523.
  • Veysman A.D. Grechesko-russkiy slovar'. – Reprint 5-go izd. 1899 g. – M.: Greko-lat. kabinet YU.A. Shichalina, 1991. – 1368 s.
  • Vernan ZH.-P. Proiskhozhdeniye drevnegrecheskoy mysli: Per. s fr. – M.: Progress, 1988. – 224 s.
  • Galich Z.N. Gorod i urbanizatsiya – fenomeny i paradigmy tsivilizatsii // Tsivilizatsiya. Voskhozhdeniye i slom: Strukturoobrazuyushchiye faktory i sub"yekty tsivilizatsionnogo protsessa. – M, 2003. – S. 256-289.
  • Gachev G.D. Kosmos Dostoyevskogo // Dukhovnoye naslediye F.M. Dostoyevskogo. / Otv. red. Belov A.V. – Rostov-na-Donu, izd-vo OOO «TSVVR», 2006. – S. 6-20.
  • Gegel' G.V.F. Entsiklopediya filosofskikh nauk. – T.2. – Filosofiya prirody. – M.: Mysl', 1975. – 695 s.
  • Gorod kak sotsiokul'turnoye yavleniye istoricheskogo protsessa. – M.: EKO, 1995. – 234 s.
  • Grevs Iv. Predisloviye // Antsiferov N.P. «Nepostizhimyy gorod...» Dusha Peterburga. – L.: Izd. LGU, 1991. – S. 5-29.
  • Dobrokhotov A.L., Kalinkin A.T. Kul'turologiya: uchebnoye posobiye. – M.: INFRA-M, 2010. – 480 s.
  • Durylin S.N. Rus' prikrovennaya. – M.: Palomnik", 2000. – 336 s.
  • Malakhov V.A. Obraz goroda v sovremennom gumanitarnom diskurse: nekotoryye problemnyye napravleniya // Obraz mista v konteksti istorii?, filosofii?, kul'turi: Kievoznavchi chitannya. – K.: PARAPAN, 2005. – S. 16-18.
  • Malakhov V.A. Filosofiya v gorode (Gorodskaya ontologiya i filosofskoye soznaniye) // Malakhov V.A. Uyazvimost' lyubvi. – K.: DUKH I LITERA, 2005. – S. 433- 440.
  • Metafizika Peterburga. Peterburgskiye chteniya po teorii, istorii i filosofii kul'tury. – Vyp. 1. – SPb.: FKITS «Eydos», 1993. – 315 s.
  • Neklessa A.I. Transmugatsiya istorii. Vstupleniye v postsovremennyy mir // Tsivilizatsiya. Voskhozhdeniye i slom: Strukturoobrazuyushchiye faktory i sub"yekty tsivilizatsionnogo protsessa. – M.: Akademicheskiy proyekt, 2003. – S.
  • Ortega-i-Gasset X. Beskhrebetnaya Ispaniya: Sb.: Per. s isp. – M.: OOO «Izdatel'stvo ACT», 2003. – 269 s.
  • Semiotika goroda i gorodskoy kul'tury: Peterburg // Trudy po znakovym sistemam. XVIII. – Tartu: Izd. TGU, 1984. – 234 s.
  • Urnov M.V., Urnov D.M. Shekspir. Dvizheniye vo vremeni. – M.: Nauka, 1968. – 112 s.
  • Chuchin-Rusov A.Ye. Novyy kul'turnyy landshaft: postmodernizm ili neoarkhaika? // Voprosy filosofii. – 1999. – № 4. – S. 24-41.
  • Shpengler O. Zakat Yevropy: Ocherki morfologii mirovoy istorii. T. 2. Vsemirno-istoricheskiye perspektivy. – Mn.: Popurri, 1999. – 624 s.
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Natalia NIKIFOROVA

Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy, PhD in Culturology.
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American Technological Pastoral, German Forest, Alpine Slopes and Russian Field: Cultural Construction of National Natural Symbols

The article id dedicated to cultural history of nature, a field that has shaped recently in the Western humanities. A number of researches develop the concept of nation as of an imagined community and analyze the emergence of national natural symbols. The article offers an overview of works that conceptualize nature as a component of national identity. The idea of technological pastoral (harmonious combination of nature and culture in the landscape) became a mental basis for American culture. German forest is interpreted by the researchers as a source of mythological meanings, and as a resource for the modernization of society. Alpine slopes, transformed through engineering interventions, turned into an idea universal leisure space, that is perceived naturally. Artistic and literary representations of Russian nature are analyzed within the frames f constructivist approach. The “discovery” of the special beauty of national landscape is conceptualized.

Key words:cultural construction of nature, imagined community, national identity, technological pastoral, middle landscape, German Forest, Russian Field.

References

  • W. Cronon. The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature // Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1995, 69-90
  • F. Walter, Les ?gures paysag`eres de la nation. Territoire et paysage en Europe (16e–20e si`ecle) (Paris: Editions de l’EHESS, 2004), 524p.
  • D. Nye. America as Second Creation: Technology and Narratives of New Beginnings. - MIT Press, 2004. - 371 p.
  • L. Marx. The Machinen in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America. - Oxford, 2000, 1964. – 430 p.
  • Nikiforova L.V. Tekhnologicheskaya pastoral': amerikanskiy pastoral'nyy ideal i yego arkhitekturno-prostranstvennaya reprezentatsiya // Chelovek: obraz i sushchnost' 2011 god, №2011, s. 226 - 243.
  • Nesh R. Dikaya priroda i amerikanskiy razum. - Kiyev: KEKTS, 2002 // Elektronnyy resurs [http://www.gumer.info/bibliotek_Buks/Culture/Nash/04.php] (5.02.2015)
  • A.A. Alimov, I.A. Merenkov Istoki ekologicheskoy politiki SSHA: vklad Teodora Ruzvel'ta v yeye stanovleniye i razvitiye//Obshchestvo. Sreda. Razvitiye., №4. - SPb.: Asterion, 2014,. - S. 158 – 162.
  • T. M. Lekan. Imagining the Nation in Nature Landscape Preservation and German Identity, 1885-1945. Harvard University Press, 2004. - 334 p.
  • Dieter K. Buse. Regionalism in Ecological History // H-Net Reviews. Elektronnyy resurs [http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php?id=10447].
  • Jeffrey K. Wilson. The German Forest: Nature, Identity, and the Contestation of a National Symbol, 1871-1914 (German and European Studies), Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012. - 326 p.
  • Tom J. Arnold . Two Roads Diverged in a Wood: Questions about Germans, Their Forests, and the Path of German History // H-Net Reviews. Elektronnyy resurs [http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php?id=36911] (10.02.2015).
  • D. Blackbourn. The Conquest of Nature: Water, Landscape, and the Making of Modern Germany, Jonathan Cape 497 p.
  • A. Denning. From Sublime Landscapes to “White Gold”: How Skiing Transformed the Alps after 1930 // Environmental History (2014) 19 (1). Oxford University Press. - P. 78-108.
  • Christopher David Ely, This Meager Nature. Landscape and National Identity in Imperial Russia (DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 2004), 289 p.
  • Nikiforova L.V. Obraz Finlyandii v russkoy romanticheskoy traditsii: k voprosu ob istoriko-kul'turnykh kornyakh «severnogo moderna» // Obshchestvo. Sreda. Razvitiye. №4 (17). - SPb.: Asterion, 2010. - S. 107 - 111.
  • Catherine Brice. Building Nations, Transforming Landscape // Contemporary European History, Vol. 16, Issue 1, 2007, P. 109 - 119.
  • Niva ZH. Mif russkogo peyzazha / ZH. Niva / /Niva ZH. Vozvrashcheniye v Yevropu: Stat'i o russkoy literature /Per. s fr. — M.: Vyssh. shkola. 1999. S. 12-26.
  • Heart-Pine Russia: Walking and Writing the Nineteenth-Century Forest by Jane T. Costlow Review of Heart-Pine Russia: Walking and Writing the Nineteenth-Century Forest (Jane T. Costlow) by Killian Quigley. Elektronnyy resurs [http://makemag.com/review-heart-pine-russia-by-jane-t-costlow-2/] (10.02.2015).
  • Vul'f L. Izobretaya Vostochnuyu Yevropu: Karta tsivilizatsii v soznanii epokhi Prosveshcheniya. - M.: Novoye literaturnoye obozreniye, 2003.
  • Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures (Science Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Science). Ed. by H. Selin, Springer Science & Business Media, 2003 - 481 p.
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Andrey CHUKUROV

Herzen State Pedagogical University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Department of Theory and History of Culture.
Associate Professor, PhD in Culturology.
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Culture and Deviation

The article looks at interaction between deviation and the social system and considers various approaches to defining deviation and to the role of deviant behavior in society. The phenomenon of neurodiversity and changing attitudes to autism receive particular attention in this article. All kinds of art at present pay tribute to autism in general or specifically Asperger's syndrome, indicating underlying changes in world culture.

Key words: neurodiversity, autism, Asperger, art, deviance..

References

  • Deviantnoye povedeniye. [Elektron. resurs] / Rezhim dostupa: http://www.grandars.ru/college/sociologiya/deviantnoe-povedenie.html (15.09.2014), svobodnyy. – Zagl. s ekrana. – rus.
  • : Smelzer Neyl. Glava 7. Deviatsiya i sotsial'nyy kontrol'. [Elektron. resurs] / Sotsiologiya: per. s angl. - M.: Feniks, 1998. - 688 s. Skanirovaniye i obrabotka: Anastasiya Ivankova. // Skepsis. Nauchno-prosvetitel'skiy zhurnal. – Rezhim dostupa: http://scepsis.net/library/id_580.html (4.02.2015), svobodnyy. – Zagl. s ekrana. – rus.
  • Yunko Tanaka-Matsumi. Patopsikhologiya i kul'tura. // Psikhologiya i kul'tura. Pod red.Devida Matsumoto. – SPb.: Piter, 2003. – S. 428.
  • Sindrom Aspergera. [Eletron. resurs] / Rezhim dostupa: http://www.aspergers.ru/node/130 (28.09.2014), svobodnyy. – Zagl. s ekrana. – rus.
  • Chukurov A.YU. Sindrom Aspergera i khudozhestvennyy tekst. [Elektron. resurs] / Rezhim dostupa:http://weissview.blogspot.ru/2014/09/1.html(15.04.2015), svobodnyy. – Zagl. s ekrana. – rus.
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Tatiana SIDOROVA

Novosibirsk State University
Novosibirsk State Medical University
Novosibirsk, Russia.
Associate Professor, PhD in Philosophy.

Ecology of Medicine in Space of Ethos: From Medical Ethics to Bioethics

The article highlights the ethos of medicine as a cultural complex, part of which is medical ethics. The ecology of medicine implies integrity and a dynamic balance of ethos elements. The ethos includes the main values and principles and normative elements, regulating relations in medicine. The historical patterns of the ethos are traced in the focus of medical ethics. Bioethics is presented as a contemporary regulatory system of relations in biomedicine, as a way to resolve moral dilemmas. The relativization of moral reason in modern medicine undermines the inviolability of the principles of medical ethics. The space of ethos is changing and a peer-like relation between doctor and patient is weakening.

Key words: medicine, culture, ethos, doctor, medical ethics, history of medicine, the medical profession, , medical education, bioethics, norms, ethical principles.

References

  • Apresyan R.G. Professional'naya, prikladnaya i prakticheskaya etiki. //http://iph.ras.ru/uplfile/ethics/biblio/Apressyan/Prof_ethics.html Rezhim dostupa: 05.02.2015
  • Zudgof K. Meditsina srednikh vekov i epokhi Vozrozhdeniya. - M.: Vuzovskaya kniga, 1999.
  • Meyyer –Shteyneg T. Meditsina XVII-XIX vekov. –M.: Vuzovskaya kniga, 1999
  • Rybin V.A. Evtanaziya. Meditsina. Kul'tura. Filosofskiye osnovaniya sovremennogo sotsiokul'turnogo krizisa v mediko-antropologicheskom aspekte. - M.: «Knizhnyy dom «Librokom», 2009.
  • Sorokina T.S. Istoriya meditsiny: uchebnik dlya stud. vyssh. med. ucheb. zavedeniy. –M: Izdatel'skiy tsentr «Akademiya», 2009.
  • Yudin B.G. Smert' i umiraniye v kontekste vysokikh tekhnologiy. //Rabochiye tetradi po bioetike. Vypusk 19: Biotekhnologicheskoye uluchsheniye cheloveka: gumanitarnaya ekspertiza, sb. nauch.st. / pod red. B. G. Yudina. — M.: Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta, 2014.
  • Beauchamp T. L., Ruth R. Faden R.R. Informed Consent. I. History of informed consent// Enzyclopedia of Bioethics 3rd ed. 2004. Edited by Stepen G.Post. V.2
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Theories of Culture

Ilya LEVYASH

Institute of Philosophy at the Belorussian National Academy of Sciences,
Minsk, Republic of Belarus.
Centre for Research into Globalisation, Integration and Socio-cultural Cooperation.
Professor-researcher, Head researcher
Doctor of Philosophy and Cultural Science
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Homo sapiens or homo wise (The human as reasonable or wise)?

The article deals with the problems connected with the dynamic state of the ecosphere, the historical traditions related with it, and modern alternatives, including the official international paradigm of «sustainable development», and the socio-political , scientific, technological and educational prerequisites of the implementation of V. I. Vernadsky’s doctrines about the noosphere in the process of ecological revolution. The paradigm of the great thinker is a movement to the state of an ecosphere in which the human is the measure of all things, provided that all things are the measure of the human.

Key words:ecosphere, noosphere, ecological development, «sustainable development», ecological evolution, ecological revolution, prescience, conceptual foresight, design.

References

  • Bebel' A. Budushcheye obshchestvo. M.: Gospolitizdat, 1959.
  • Vernadskiy V. Biosfera. M.: Energiya, 1967.
  • Viner N. Kibernetika. M.: Nauka, 1968.
  • Gete I.V. Sobraniye sochineniy v 10 t. M.: Khudozh. literatura, 1975-1980.
  • Dorst ZH. Do togo, kak umret priroda. M.: Progress, 1968.
  • Dostoyevskiy F.M.. Poln. sobr. soch. V 30 tt. T.11. L.: Nauka, 1974; T.23. L.: Nauka, 1981.
  • Il'ya Prigozhin. XIV Mezhdunarodnyye chteniya. 18-19 noyabrya 1998. Mn., 1998.
  • Istoriya filosofii v kratkom izlozhenii / perevod s cheshskogo I.I. Boguta/. M.: Mysl', 1994.
  • Kafka F. Zamok. M.: Politizdat, 1991.
  • Levyash I. Global'nyy mir i geopolitika: kul'turno-tsivilizatsionnoye izmereniye. V 2 kn. Mn.: Belaruskaya nauka, 2012. Kn. 1. 484 s., kn. 2. 408 s.
  • Mann T. Iosif i yego brat'ya. V 2 t. M.: AST, ASTREL', 1991. - T.2.
  • Marks K., Engel's F. Iz rannikh proizvedeniy. M.: Gospolitizat, 1956.
  • Marks K., Engel's F. Sochineniya. M.: Gospolitizdat.-T. 3., T.20., T. 42., T.25. - CH .1.-CH.2., T.46. CH.1.
  • Moiseyev N. Byt' ili ne byt' chelovechestvu? Ul'yanovskiy dom pechati, 1999.
  • Nitsshe F. Volya k vlasti. Opyt pereotsenki vsekh tsennostey. M.: REFl-book, 1994.
  • Nitsshe, F. Sochineniya v 2 t. T.1. M.: Ripol klassik, 1998.
  • Novikov N. Izbrannyye proizvedeniya. M., 1951.
  • O velikom inkvizitore. Dostoyevskiy i posleduyushchiye. M.: Molodaya gvardiya, 1991.
  • Pechchei A. Chelovecheskiye kachestva. M.: Progress, 1980.
  • Rozanov V. Religiya. Filosofiya. Kul'tura. M.: Respublika, 1992.
  • Solov'yev V. Sobr. soch. - SPb.: N.F. Mertts, - T. 7. 1903.
  • Uaytkhed A.N. Izbrannyye trudy po filosofii. M.: Nauka, 1990.
  • Upravleniye v global'nom soobshchestve - sotsial-demokraticheskiy podkhod 2003http:/www.socialistinternationaLong/5Congress/KHKHIICongress/xxiiglobalgovernance- e.html>
  • Tsvetayeva M. Stikhotvoreniya. Poemy. Dramaticheskiye proizvedeniya. M: Khudozh. literatura, 1990. Chelovek. 1993. №5.
  • Ekzyuperi A. Sochineniya. M.: Soglasiye, 1994.
  • Estetika Renessansa. V 2 t. T.1. M.: Iskusstvo, 1981.
  • Yaspers K. Smysl i naznacheniye istorii. M: Respublika, 1994.
  • Latour, B.We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge, 1993.
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Vladimir FALKO

Moscow State Forest University (MSFU), Mytischi, Moscow reg., Russia
Prof, PhD in Philosophy, Head of Philosophy Department.

The Problem of the Rights and Legal Subjectivity of Culture

Research into protecting culture and theoretical research in cultural ecology has highlighted the problem of culture’s rights. The "Culture Rights Declaration", a project based on the ideas of D.S. Likhachev and offered by the Russian Federation to UNESCO, has not been adopted, partly because culture is not considered a legal subject. The issue of rights and legal subjectivity is still being debated, but the concept of culture’s rights is not found in “Foundations of State Cultural Policy” approved by the President of the Russian Federation. There are moral and political reasons suggesting that these discussions be continued. The problem of culture’s rights and subjectivity requires developments in the fields of philosophy, culture and law. The author uses S.P. Nikanorov’s concept of a subject as a pair consisting of subjectivity and its bearer which is a person or community. Here are the main ideas of the author's concept: 1. Subjectivity can belong to its bearer and can be embodied in the objects of his activity. 2. Culture manifests itself not only in objects and values, but also in the human and his spiritual world. 3. Being the repository of culture’s subjectivity, a person is a real legal subject. 4. The traditional perception of culture as not being a legal entity does not mean that it really lacks possession of rights and subjectivity in general. 5. Treating culture as the virtual subject of communication and creativity is fruitful for the arts and for personality development. 6. The “Culture Rights’ Declaration” should be nationally and internationally adopted for the effective preservation of culture and its development.

Key words: culture, rights, subject, subjectivity, bearer of subjectivity, legal subject, possession of rights.

References

  • Deklaratsiya prav kul'tury // Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava. – 2006. – №12. – S. 142–147.
  • Likhachev,D.S.Deklaratsiya prav kul'tury: okonchatel'nyy variant / D.S. Likhachev[Elektronnyy resurs]. Rezhim dostupa:http://www.lihachev.ru/lihachev/deklaratsiya/123/.
  • Guseynov, A.A., A.S. Zapesotskiy Kul'turologiya Dmitriya Likhacheva: kommentarii k knige D.S. Likhacheva «Izbrannyye trudy po russkoy i mirovoy kul'ture» / A.A. Guseynov, A.S. Zapesotskiy. – SPb.: SPbGUP, 2006. –36 s.
  • Osnovy gosudarstvennoy kul'turnoy politiki. Utverzhdeny Ukazom Prezidenta Ros-siyskoy Federatsii 29.12.2014 g. [Elektronnyy resurs]. Rezhim dostupa: http://news.kremlin.ru/media/events/files/41d526a877638a8730eb.pdf.
  • Berdyayev, N.A. Smysl istorii / N.A. Berdyayev. – M.: Mysl', 1990. – 175 s.
  • Shveytser, A. Upadok i vozrozhdeniye kul'tury. Filosofiya kul'tury. Chast' pervaya // A. Shveytser. Blagogoveniye pered zhizn'yu.– M.: Progress, 1992.– 572 s.
  • Likhachev, D.S. Izbrannyye trudy po russkoy i mirovoy kul'ture / D.S. Likhachev. – SPb.: SPbGUP, 2006. – 416 s.
  • Fal'ko, V.I. Dukhovnyy i vremennoy kontekst kak vnutrennyaya sreda sotsial'noy sistemy v usloviyakh global'nogo krizisa / V.I. Fal'ko // Gumanitarnyye aspekty global'nogo krizisa: opyt Rossii, Shveytsarii i YES: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii. Moskva, 10–12 dekabrya 2009 g. / Pod red. Abylgaziyeva I.I., Il'ina I.V. – M.: MAKS Press, 2010. – S. 194–217.
  • Nikanorov, S.P. Teoretiko-sistemnyye konstrukty dlya kontseptual'nogo analiza i proyektirovaniya / S.P. Nikanorov. – M.: Kontsept, 2008. – 312 s.
  • Marks, K. Pis'mo F. Engel'su, 25 marta 1868 g. / K. Marks, F. Engel's. Soch. 2-ye izd., t. 32.
  • Fal'ko,V.I.Problema prav i sub"yektnosti prirody v bioetike i ekologicheskoy etike / V.I. Fal'ko // P’yatiy natsional'niy kongres z bioyetiki z mizhnarodnoyu uchastyu. 23–25 veresnya 2013, Kii?v, Ukrai?na. Kii?v: NAN Ukrai?ni, NAMN Ukrai?ni, MOZ Ukrai?ni, 2013. – S. 53–54.
  • Mishatkina, T.V. Ekologo-eticheskiye aspekty global'nogo izmeneniya klimata / T.V. Mishatkina // Vestnik MGUL – Lesnoy vestnik. – 2011. –№ 2 (78). – С. 7–12.
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Philosophy of Culture

Dmitrii KOROTKOV

Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg,Russia.
Institute of Philosophy.
Senior Lecturer of the Department of History of Philosophy, PhD in Philosophy.

Deconceptualization of Nothingness: the Case of Lautreamont.

Following the usual interpretations that regard History as a history of alienation, forgetfulness or nihilism, the author regards the work of Lautreamont as a significant element in the decline of the Modern. The poetry of the French author is therefore being withdrawn from the sphere of literature studies and shifted into the context of philosophical classics.

Key words: Lautreamont, Modern, nothingness, attraction, velvet, geometry, image.

References

  • Dekart R. Izbrannyye proizvedeniya. M. 1950.
  • Lotreamon. Pesni Mal'dorora. Per. s fr. N. Mavlevich. M. 2012.
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Concepts of Culture

Ekaterina NAUMOVA

Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg,Russia.
Institute of Philosophy.
Assistant in the Department of Ontology and Theory of knowledge, PhD in Philosophy.
This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

The History of Capitalism as an Idea and a Term

The article is about the conceptual history (Begriffsgeschichte) of capitalism in the European and Russian cultural contexts. Initially, the concept of capitalism was actively used in socialist literature as a political catchword and antonym of the concept “socialism” and carried negative connotations. From the 1880s the concept of capitalism was at the center of political debates between liberals and populists and became widely used after the publication of N. S. Rusanov’s essay 'Manifestations of Сapitalism in Russia'. The term gained a neutral meaning in A. Schaeffle’s book Kapitalismus and Socialismus. The concept was introduced into the scientific discourse and received positive connotations thanks to W. Sombart and M. Weber’s books. The concept 'spirit of capitalism' promoted the idealization of capitalism. This article seeks to reconstruct and analyze the political and scientific history of the concept of capitalism. The common assumption in European literature that K. Marx never used the concept is called into question.

Key words: capitalism, conceptual history (Begriffsgeschichte), R. Koselleck, spirit of capitalism, A. Schaeffle, W. Sombart M. Weber, K. Marx, N. S. Rusanov.

References

  • Veber M. «Protestantskaya etika i dukh kapitalizma», M., 1990.
  • Gloveli G. D. Istoriya ekonomicheskikh ucheniy. M.: Yurayt.
  • Zombart V. «Sovremennyy kapitalizm», M, 1903.
  • Koposov N.Ye. Istoriya ponyatiy vchera i segodnya. SPb: YEU, Aleteyya. 2006.
  • «Perepiska K. Marksa i F. Engel'sa s russkimi politicheskimi deyatelyami». M. 1951.
  • Rusanov S.N. «Proyavleniya kapitalizma v Rossii», «Russkoye bogatstvo», №1, №2, 1880.
  • Slovar' inostrannykh slov", sostavitel' N.YA. Gavkin". Kiyev-Khar'kov: Yuzhno-Russkoye Knigoizdatel'stvo F.A. Iogansona. 1900.
  • Sheffle A. «Kapitalizm i sotsializm», SPb, 1872. S. 4-163
  • Entsiklopediya. Politicheskiye partii Rossii. Konets XIX-pervaya tret' XX veka. M.: ROSSPEN, 1996.
  • Bog. I. Handwortbuch der Wirtschaftswissenschaft. Stuttgart, New York, 1978, P. 419- 432
  • Hilger M-E, “Kapital, Kapitalist, Kapitalismus”, Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe: Historishes Lexicon zur politisch-sozialen Sprache in Deutschland, ed. Otto Brunner et al. (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1982) III: 400. P. 399-454
  • Passow R. «‘Kapitalismus’: Eine begrifflichterminologische Studie» (Jena, 1918; 2nd. ed., 1927)
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Fashion studies

Anna KONEVA

Likhatchev Russian Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage.
Dr.habil. in Cultural Studies, Head of Department of Fundamental Cultural Research.

The Ecology of Self-Presentation: Image-Design

The article deals with the notion of image and its structure. Image is considered a visual narrative and practice of self-presentation. Image may be ecological in relation to the person's internal identity, but it can also inhibit their comfort zone. The article considers the structural elements of image, which enables the building of visual practices of presentation in an eco-friendly manner.

Key words: Image, identity, self-presentation, fashion, visual narrative.

References

  • Kitchen F. Pablik rileyshnz: printsipy i praktika: uchebnoye posobiye dlya vuzov. - M.: Yuniti-Dana, 2004.
  • Dancheyeva O.V., Shvalb YU.M. Odinochestvo: Sotsial'no - psikhologicheskiye problemy. - Kiyev, 1991.
  • Kotler F. Marketing. Menedzhment / Per. s angl. pod red. O.YA. Tret'yak, L.A. Volkovoy, YU.N. Konturevskogo. - SPb.: Piter, 2004. – 752 s.
  • Slovar' marketingovykh terminov. 1000 terminov po marketingu, reklame, PR. / Avt.sost. Shevchenko D.A. - M.: RGGU, 2007.
  • Blazhnov Ye.A. Public Relations. Priglasheniye v mir tsivilizovannykh rynochnykh i obshchestvennykh otnosheniy. - M.: EKSMO, 1994.
  • Bogdanov Ye. N., Zazykin V.G. Psikhologicheskiye osnovy «Pablik rileyshnz». - SPb.: Piter, 2003.
  • Lysikova O.V., Lysikova N.P. Imidzhelogiya i pablik rileyshnz v sotsiokul'turnoy sfere. / uch.posobiye. – M.: Mosk. sots-psikhol. institut., 2006. – 166 s.
  • Ol'shevskiy A.S. Antikrizisnyy PR i konsalting. – SPb.: Piter, 2003. – 432 s.
  • Fedorkina A.P., Romashkina R.F. Problema imidzha v kontekste sotsial'nogo psikhoanaliza / Imidzh gossluzhby. Sb.nauch. trudov. – M.: IDF-SPA Konsalting, 1996. - S. 98 – 106.
  • Pocheptsov G.G. Imidzhelogiya. - Kiyev, izd-vo «Vakler», 2002.
  • Shepel' V.M. Imidzhelogiya. Sekrety lichnogo obayaniya. – M., 1994.
  • Lippman U. Obshchestvennoye mneniye. / Per. s angl. T.V. Barchunovoy pod red. K.A. Levinson, K.V. Petrenko. — M.: Institut Fonda «Obshchestvennoye mneniye», 2004. — 384 s.
  • Golosovker YA. Logika mifa. – M., 1987.
  • Leary M., Kowalski R. Impression management. A two-component model. // Psychological Bulletin, 107, 1990. – P. 34-47.
  • Andreyeva G. M. Psikhologiya sotsial'nogo poznaniya - M., 1997. – 239 s.
  • Mikhaylova Ye. Samoprezentatsiya. Teorii, issledovaniya, trening. – M.: Rech', 2007.
  • Arnkheym R. Iskusstvo i vizual'noye vospriyatiye. / sokr.per. s angl. V.N. Samokhina, obshch.red. V.P. Shestakova. – M.: Progress, 1974.
  • Arnkheym R. Vizual'noye myshleniye.// Khrestomatiya po obshchey psikhologii. – M.: Izd. MGU, 1981. – S. 97-107.
  • Sampson E. Image Factor. – L.: Kogan Page, 1996.
  • Dzhefkins F., Yadin D. Pablik rileyshnz./ Uch.pos. dlya vuzov. / Per.s angl. pod red. B.L. Yeremina. – M.: Yuniti-dana: 2003.
  • Fedorov I. A. Imidzh kak programmirovaniye povedeniya lyudey. - Ryazan', 1997.
  • Bodalev A.A. Vospriyatiye i ponimaniye cheloveka chelovekom. – M., 1982.
  • Goffman I. Predstavleniye sebya drugim v povsednevnoy zhizni. / per.s angl. A.D. Kovaleva. – M.: Kanon-PressTS, Kuchkovo pole, 2000. – 304 s.
  • Feofanov O.A. Agressiya lzhi. - M., 1987.- S. 90.
  • Bystrova T.YU. Veshch', forma, stil': vvedeniye v filosofiyu dizayna. – Yekaterinburg, 2001.
  • Losev A.F. Problema khudozhestvennogo stilya. – M., 1994.
  • Fogelson R.D. Person, self and identity. //Psychosocial theories of the self. – N.Y., L., 1982, p.115-132.
  • Entsiklopediya mody. - SPb.: Litera, 1997.
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Translations

Serge MOSCOVICI

Serge Moscovici (1925-2014) – French social psychologist, historian of sciences.

Essay on the Human History of Nature. The Natural Question.

This small text gives a brief typology of the "burning" or essential issues of particular epochs. According to Serge Moscovici, these were social, political, humanistic and ecological questions. In the twentieth century it is the question of nature that concerns the development of both the natural sciences and technology, as well as human nature.

Key words: Human history, social development, science, technology.

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Maurice BLANCHOT

Maurice Blanchot (1907 - 2003) - French writer, literary theorist, philosopher.

Nietzsche, today

In this essay Blanchot explores the destiny of Nietzsche’s philosophical heritage. Due to the manipulations interposed by descendants, Nietzsche’s philosophy has become a piece in a game in which it has no place. It can be considered that here Nietzsche is “excessive” when his name is cried out in political manifestations and when his thought is enveloped into artificial forms, but it should be admitted that he is also “excessive” in his distance from idle talks, in his self-discipline and in his width of ideas, absorbing all contradictions.

Key words: Nietzsche’s philosophy, nihilism, will to power, politics and philosophy.

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Michael B. HOLLAND

University of Oxford, UK.
Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages.
M.A., D.Phi.

Wound to thought

When Maurice Blanchot in his article “Nietzsche, today” hints of the philosopher’s political responsibility, he opens up his own wound that has been tingling for decades. Wounds to our bodies heal according to physical laws, sometimes, they leave scars, but who can estimate scars to our souls or to our minds? It is impossible, because it is not the domain we can see, we can touch, can verify. We may smile at the little cut but when the inward parts of our body are in danger, it is another thing. That is the destiny of the political involvement of Blanchot (officially is not guilty, is he guilty for himself?), who looks at the Heidegger (officially is guilty but not for himself?), who is thinking about Nietzsche (not guilty insofar as it is possible to lose one’s mind). Such circles, or rather spirals, can lead us to the interesting psychological-philosophical conclusions that are emerging thanks to the early but remarkable work by famous Blanchotian researcher Michael Holland.

Key words: Heidegger’s philosophy, Nietzsche’s philosophy, Maurice Blanchot, politics and philosophy, violence.

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Review

Elena STETSKO

Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
School of International Relations, Department of World Politics.
Associate Professor, PhD in Philosophy.
This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Theoretical Notes on the Practice of «Small Affairs». Review of the Manual «Ecological Ethics» / Sychev A.A., Koval E.A., Guseva A.Y. – SPb.: «Eidos», 2014. 152 p.

The review highlights the relevance of this book on ecological ethics, published in 2014. Its authors offer a rational approach to the solution of ethical environmental problems, making it useful to teachers, students, and a wider audience.

Key words: ethics, ecological (environmental) ethics, environmental problems, ecological (environmental) education, ecological consciousness, anthropocentrism and biocentrism.

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