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# 3 (40) 2020: Stage Speech vs. Public Speech. The Oral Aspect of Actual Performative Culture

Topic of the Issue

Yulia G. LIDERMAN

The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia
Laboratory for Historical and Cultural Studies, School of Advanced Studies in the Humanities
Senior Researcher
PhD in Cultural Studies

Oral Speech about the extraordinary as a medium in live arts

The article discusses the possibility of analyzing oral speech as a media in the performative arts of the last quarter of the twentieth century. The art of the 1990s-2010s is described in theory through the concepts of the cross-border nature of artistic gesture (Rosalind Krauss, Claire Bishop). But the conventions of Modern theater still influence the behavior of participants in situations organized by the artist inside a Museum or gallery or in other public spaces. Semiotic theory of oral speech (B. Gasparov) opens the possibility of understanding nonverbal types of signs that create the materiality of performance (E. Fischer-Lichte). In the case study of actual performative culture (Olga Shilyaeva's "28 days", 2018; the play "What did the birds say to Franciscus Assisiensis? "production" Transformer.doc" and the Sokolniki Park Ornitharium Moskau, 2019; Tino Segal's situation "A Progress" 2010, "This Objective of that Object" 2004; Nikita Alekseev's action "10,000 Steps" 1980) revealed the destructive function of oral speech. The article offers a theoretical concept of "the art of revelation" in relation to these cases.

Key words: aesthetics of the performative, oral speech, extraordinary, art of participation, actionism, site-specific theater, new drama, art of revelation, B. Gasparov, E. Fisher-Lichte, T. Segal, N. Alexeev.

References

  • Bulgakova O. Golos kak kulturny fenomen (The Voise as a Cultural Phenomen). Moskau.:NLO. 2015.(in Russian)
  • Krauss, Rosalind E. A voyage on the North Sea : art in the age of the post-medium condition / Rosalind Krauss. New York, N.Y. : Thames & Hudson, 2000.
  • Aronson, O. (2016) Pravo na iskusstvo (The Right to Art) // Siniy divan (Blue Sofa). 2016. Vol.21. S.29–49.(in Russian)
  • Gasparov B. Ustnaya rech kak semiotichesky ob‘ekt (Oral Speech as semiotic Object) // Uchenye zapiski Tartuskogo universiteta (Scientific Notes of the University of Tartu). 1978. Vol. 442. S. 63-112. (in Russian)
  • Greenberg C. Art and Culture: Critical Esseys / Boston. Beacon Press. 1984. 278 c.
  • Bishop, Claire. Artificial hells : participatory art and the politics of spectatorship / Claire Bishop.London ; New York : Verso Books, 2012.
  • Bourriaud, N. Relational Aesthetics. Paris: Presses du réel, 2002.

Helen PETROVSKY

Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences , Moscow, Russia
Head of the Department of Aesthetics, PhD in Philosophy

Speech and Revolution (An Outline for a Theory of Action)

One of the main contentions of the present study is as follows: Speech, the echoes of which are perceived as individual statements in the course of collective demonstrations, is the direct effect of mass action. The masses appeared on the historical arena as an independent force already in the 19th century. It is appropriate to recollect two images of the masses that took shape in the early stages of Modernity, namely, that of the mob in Thomas Hobbes and that of a dynamic of material forces in Benedict Spinoza. Although the term they use is the same (multitude, multitudo), its reading by the two philosophers is radically different. It is a materialist and physicalistic understanding of the masses as the combined action of multiple forces that holds true for contemporary social movements. And this is the exact reason why Spinoza’s radical philosophy aimed at the discovery of the real causes of phenomena becomes so relevant and topical today. One can say that this philosophy prioritizes the interactions of bodies or, to put it another way, highlights relations. It is from this perspective that one should be treating transformations that we witness on a global scale.
Slogans are an example of speech that participates in transformations themselves. They can be viewed as so-called performatives that change the existing state of things. However, recent phenomena tend to alter our idea of slogans: they have become closer to constative utterances rather than performatives. Such are many of the French slogans of May ’68, but especially those that were displayed at the 2011 protest actions in Moscow. Analyzing the events of May ’68, the acclaimed social scientist Michel de Certeau emphasizes the right to speech as the fundamental right of individuals asserted thanks to the sudden outbreak of enunciation. He compares the taking of speech (la prise de parole) with the taking of the Bastille. My claim, however, is that, unlike individualized speech, we are dealing with the drone of voices, which is nothing other than the expression of mass collective action. And such is the precise meaning of the “displacement” of language (a term used by de Certeau himself). Thus speech that participates in transformations makes them strikingly apparent.
This indirectly points to the crisis of representation (in the philosophical sense) but also to the crisis of representative democracy. One of the main slogans of Bolotnaya Square – “You don’t even represent us” (also meaning: “You cannot imagine what we are capable of”) – unambiguously testifies to this. In the social sphere, representation is replaced with direct democracy or grassroots social initiatives, while in the sphere of art, theater included, new documentality is gaining ground. Avoiding any kind of spectacularity, the latter engages with appropriated speech (speech as a “found object”). In each of these cases we are dealing with the appearance of the “multitude” as the manifestation of the dynamic of contemporary social being. A dynamic of this kind calls for new analytical tools, for example, an alternative semiotics. Here one may draw inspiration from Charles Sanders Peirce, especially his tripartite structure of signs as well the idea of abduction as a way of uncovering already existing but implicit connections. The crucial thing, however, is that masses engaged in collective action lead to a new understanding of revolution, which has nothing to do with the old Marxian doctrine. Revolutions today are no longer bloodbaths; they are non-violent mass actions resulting in deep transformations. This appears to be not only the achievement but also the direct heritage of May ’68.

Key words: speech, revolution, masses (multitude), action, slogan, relation, anthropology, B. Spinoza, Th. Hobbes, M. de Certeau, Ch.S. Peirce.

References

  • Althusser, L. Lénine et la philosophie, trans. by N. Kulish, ed. by V. Sofronov. Moscow: Ad Marginem Publ., 2005. 176 p. (In Russian)
  • Austin, J.L. “How to Do Things with Words”, in: J.L. Austin, Izbrannoe [Selected Writings], trans. by L.B. Makeeva, V.P. Rudnev. Moscow: Ideia-Press, Dom Intellektual’noi Knigi Publ., 1999, pp. 13–135. (In Russian)
  • Bakhtin, M.M. K filosofii postupka [Toward a Philosophy of the Act]  (In Russain)
  • Bikbov, A. “Predstavitel’stvo i samoupolnomochenie. Po materialam issledovaniia NII mitingov” [Representation and Self-Governance. Based on the Findings of the Independent Research Initiative, December 2011 – June 2012], Logos, 2012, Vol. 88, No. 4, pp. 189–229. (In Russian)
  • Bourg, J. From Revolution to Ethics. May 1968 and Contemporary French Thought. Montreal & Kingston, London, Chicago: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2017. 468 p.
  • Certeau, M. de. La prise de parole et autres écrits politiques, édition établie et présentée par L. Giard. Paris: Seuil, 1994. 278 p.
  • Evreinov, N. “Teatr i eshafot. K voprosu o proiskhozhdenii teatra kak publichnogo instituta” [Theater and the Scaffold. On the Origins of Theater as a Public Institution] (In Russian)
  • Foucault, M. Surveiller et punir. Naissance de la prison, trans. by V. Naumov, ed. by I. Borisova. Moscow: Ad Marginem Publ., 1999. 480 p. (In Russian)
  • Hobbes, Th. Man and Citizen (De Homine and De Cive), ed. by B. Gert. Indianapolis, Ind., Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Co., 1991. 388 p.
  • Jameson, F. “Utopia as Replication”, in: F. Jameson, Valences of the Dialectic. London, New York: Verso, 2009, pp. 410–434.
  • Negri, A. The Savage Anomaly. The Power of Spinoza’s Metaphysics and Politics, trans. by M. Hardt. Minneapolis, Minn., Oxford: University of Minnesota Press, 1991. 280 p.
  • Negri, A. Spinoza for Our Time: Politics and Postmodernity, trans. by W. McCuaig. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013. 128 p.
  • Negri, A. Subversive Spinoza: (Un)contemporary Variations, ed. by T.S. Murphy, trans. by T.S. Murphy, M. Hardt, T. Stolze and Ch.T. Wolfe. Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 2004. 124 p.
  • Peirce, Ch.S. “Harvard Lectures on Pragmatism (1903)”, in: The Essential Peirce. Selected Philosophical Writings. Vol. 2 (1893–1913), ed. by the Peirce Edition Project. Bloomington, Indianapolis, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1998, pp. 133–241.
  • Petrovsky, H. Vozmushchenie znaka. Kul’tura protiv transtsendentsii [Disturbance of the Sign: Culture Against Transcendence]. Moscow: Common place, 2019. 288 p. + pl.: 32 p. (In Russian)
  • Podoroga, V.A. Vtoroi ekran. Sergei Eizenshtein i kinematograf nasiliia. T. 1. Zerkal’naia podporka. Materialy k psikhobiografii [The Second Screen. Sergei Eisenstein and the Cinema of Violence. Vol. 1. The Mirror Support. Materials for a Psychobiography]. Moscow: BREUS Publ., 2017, 352 p., ill. (In Russian)
  • Renanskii, D. “Kak segodniashniaia publika vosprinimaet ‘stil’ Stalin’” [How Today’s Audience Perceives “Stalin-Style”], Vedomosti, 20.09.2018 (In Russian)
  • Searle, J.R. “What Is a Speech Act?”, trans. by I.M. Kobozeva, in: Novoe v zarubezhnoi lingvistike. Vyp. XVII: Teoriia rechevykh aktov [New Perspectives in Foreign Linguistics. Vol. XVII: The Theory of Speech Acts], comp. by I.M. Kobozeva and V.Z. Dem’iankov, ed. by B.Iu. Gorodetskii. Moscow: Progress Publ., 1986, pp. 151–169. (In Russian)
  • Spinoza, B. “Ethica”, trans. by N.A. Ivantsov, in: B. Spinoza, Izbrannye proizvedeniia v 2 t. [Selected Works in 2 Vols.], ed. by V.V. Sokolov. Vol. I. Moscow: Gospolitizdat Publ., 1957, pp. 359–618. (In Russian)
  • Spinoza, B. “Tractatus politicus”, trans. by S.M. Rogovin and B.V. Chredin, in: B. Spinoza, Izbrannye proizvedeniia v 2 t. [Selected Works in 2 Vols.], ed. by V.V. Sokolov. Vol. II. Moscow: Gospolitizdat Publ., 1957, pp. 285–382. (In Russian)
  • Virno, P. Grammatica della moltitudine. Per una analisi delle forme di vita contemporanee, trans. by A.G. Petrova, ed. by A.A. Penzin. Moscow: Ad Marginem Press Publ., 2013. 176 p. (In Russian).

Oleg ARONSON

Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences , Moscow, Russia
Department of Aesthetics, Senior Research Fellow, PhD in Philosophy

From the Logic of Sensus Communis to the Aesthetics of Equality

The article draws on the interpretation of sensus communis in Kant's Critique of Judgment. Kant argues with the understanding of this concept as “common sense” in the English tradition. His sensus communis is part of the antinomy of taste, where it does not indicate the individual aspect of taste, but implies instead universal consensus. In his later work, “The Conflict of the Faculties”, while describing revolutionary enthusiasm, Kant brings up this topic again, but already in conjunction with the political context of the French Revolution. Taking into consideration the attempt to combine Kantian aesthetics and the theory of political judgment (H. Arendt), as well as the interpretation of “enthusiasm” in terms of the analytic of the sublime (J.-F. Lyotard), the author proposes to trace the logic of the development of sensus communis in light of the discursive changes provoked by the revolutionary action of the masses. Revolution is treated not as a historical rupture but as a process of long duration (in the sense of Fernand Braudel’s longue durée). Signs of a revolution thus understood are to be found beyond the regime of human perception and contemplation, beyond the categories of space and time, in the zone of sensus communis, indicating the possibility of surpassing the self-identical subject and anthropomorphic perception (the human experience of history, science, and society). The logic of sensus communis as collective action based on equality and solidarity correlates with Darwin’s idea of pre-adaptation, which is further developed into the concept of exaptation in contemporary evolutionary biology. The exaptation model manifests itself both in formal mathematics (the multiplicity of axiomatic systems) and in the action of society, for which “freedom”, “equality”, and “solidarity” are no longer ideals and values, but forms of sensus communis. The “aesthetics of equality” is described precisely through these forms. This allows one to leave behind both traditional aesthetic categories reflecting the sensual experience of the cognizing individual as well as rational (i.e., economic, legal, ethical) ways of interpreting equality.

Key words: sensus communis, common sense, Kant, enthusiasm, aesthetics, equality, solidarity, mass, time of long duration, revolution.

References

  • Arendt H. Lekcii po politicheskoj filosofii Kanta. SPb.: Nauka, 2011. 303 s. (In Russian).
  • Bad'yu A. Apostol Pavel. Obosnovanie universalizma. Per. O. Golovoj. M.: Universitetskaya kniga, 1999. 96 s. (In Russian)
  • Badiou A. Being and Event, translated by O. Felthman, N.Y.: Continuum, 2005. 526 p.
  • Braudel F. History and the Social Sciences: The Longue Durée // The Longue Durée and World-Systems Analysis. Edited and with an Introduction by Richard E. Lee with a new translation of Fernand Braudel’s “Histoire et Sciences sociales: La longue durée” by Immanuel Wallerstein. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2012. P. 241–276.
  • Gil'bert D. Osnovaniya geometrii. Petrograd: Seyatel', 1923. 152 s.
  • Gould S.J., Vrba E. Exaptation – A Missing Term in the Science of Form // Paleobiology, Vol.8, No.1 (Winter 1982). P. 4–15.
  • Kant I. Kritika sposobnosti suzhdeniya // Kant I. Sobr. soch. V 8 t. Obshchaya redakciya A. G ulygi. T.5. M.: CHoro, 1994. 414 c. (In Russian)
  • Kant I. Spor fakul'tetov // Kant I. Sobr. soch. V 8 t. Obshchaya redakciya A. Gulygi. T. 7. M.: CHoro, 1994. C.157–136. (In Russian)
  • Lyotard, J.-F. Enthusiasm: The Kantian Critique of History. Translated by G. van den Abbeele. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009. 74 p.
  • Rans'er ZH. Razdelyaya chuvstvennoe. Per. s fr. V. Lapickogo, A. SHestakova. SPb: Izd-vo Evropejskogo Universiteta, 2007. 264 s. (In Russian)
  • Salikov A.N. Sposobnost' suzhdeniya kak politicheskaya problema v filosofii Hanny Arendt // Vestnik RGU im. Kanta. 2008. Vyp. 6. Gumanitarnye nauki. S.34–40. (In Russian)
  • Spinoza B. Politicheskij traktat // Spinoza B. Izbr. proizvedeniya. V 2 t. T. 2. M., 1957. S.185–382. (In Russian).

Valeriy ZOLOTUKHIN

The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia
Laboratory for Historical and Cultural Studies, School of Advanced Studies in the Humanities
Senior Researcher, PhD in Art History

Poetry Performances of the second half of the 1920s from the Perspective of S.I. Bernstein’s Dynamic Theory

In the early 1920s, the Russian Formalists made a landmark contribution to the Russian speech aesthetics by considering the artistic spoken word from the perspective of literary theory. In 1923, Sergei Ignat’evich Bernshtein (1892–1970), a linguist and an active member of the Society for the Study of Poetic Language (OPOIAZ), founded KIKhR (The Office for the Study of Literary Speech). KIKhR became the leading center for the studies of spoken literary language. Seeking to define the relationships between the text and its performance, Bernshtein and KIKhR colleagues developed a multifaceted interdisciplinary methodology, venturing far beyond textual analysis. In the late 1920s, they also became interested in the analysis of the dynamics of a declamatory composition. Their approaches were developed through the analysis of the actor's declamation. However, in early 1930, the Laboratory had a number of meetings where they discussed the recitation and texts of young poets, members of the Literary Center of Constructivists. Their performance style was strikingly different from previous schools and groups. The paper gives an account of the relationships established in this late period between Laboratory and a literary group of poets-constructivists. In 1930, when new composition theory of Bernstein and his colleagues were completed, it turned out that similar processes were developing in the literature and performative culture in general at the same time.

Key words: Russian formalism, Laboratory for the Study of Literary Speech, Performance Studies, Poetry Performance, Constructivism, avant-garde, Institute for Living Word, S.I. Bernshtein, Sound Poetry Scores, dynamics, 1920s.

References

  • Asaf'ev B. Muzykal'naia forma kak protsess (Musical Form as a Process). Leningrad, Muzyka Publ., 1971 (in Russian).
  • Aseev N. Razgrimirovannaia krasavitsa. Putevye zametki (The Beautiful Girl Without Her Makeup. Travel Notes). Moscow, Federatsiia Publ., 1929 (in Russian).
  • Bernshtein S.I. Esteticheskie predposylki teorii deklamatsii (Esthetics Premises of the Theory of Declamation). Poetika. Vremennik Slovesnogo otdela Gosudarstvennogo instituta istorii iskusstv (Poetics. Yearbook of the Literary Studies Department of the State Institute for Art History), no. 3. Leningrad: Academia Publ., 1927, pp. 25–44 (in Russian).
  • Bernshtein S.I. Golos Bloka (Blok’s Voice). Blokovskii sbornik II: Trudy Vtoroi nauchnoi konferentsii, posviashchennoi izucheniiu zhizni i tvorchestva A.A. Bloka (Blok: In Memoriam. Vol.2: Papers of the second academic conference devoted to the life and art of A. A. Blok). Tartu, Tartuskii gosudarstvennyi universitet Publ., 1972, pp. 454—525 (in Russian).
  • Bernshtein S.I. Stikh i deklamatsiia (Verse and Declamation). Russkaia rech' (Russian Speech), no. 1. Leningrad, Academia Publ., 1927, pp. 7—41 (in Russian).
  • Biriukov S. A.N. Chicherin: poet zvucharno-vizual'nyi, ili Chto goditsia dlia znaka poezii (Chicherin: sound-visual poet, or What is suitable for a sign of poetry )// Aleksei Chicherin: Konstruktivizm voskresheniia. Deklaratsii, konstruemy, poeziia, memuary. Issledovaniia i kommentarii (Alexei Chicherin: Constructivism of Resurrection. Declarations, “construemes”, poetry, memoirs. Researches and Commentaries). Saint-Petersburg, Izdatel'stvo Evropeiskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge Publ., 2019 (in Russian).
  • Bogatyreva S.I. Serebrianyi vek v nashem dome (Silver Age in Our Home). Moscow, AST, Redaktsiia Eleny Shubinoi Publ., 2019 (in Russian).
  • Brang P. Das Klingende Wort. Zu Theorie und Praxis der Deklamationskunst in Russland. Wien, Verlag der ÖAW Publ., 1988 (in German).
  • Christiansen B. Philosophie der Kunst. Hanau: Clauss & Feddersen Publ., 1909 (in German).
  • Dukor I. Sergei Tret'iakov. Tret'iakov S. Rechevik. Moscow, Leningrad, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1929, pp. 5–21 (in Russian). Eikhenbaum B.M. O poezii (On Poetry). Leningrad, Sovetskii pisatel' Publ., 1969 (in Russian).
  • Goncharenko A. Biografiia i konstruktivizm A.N. Chicherina (A. Chicherin’s Biography and his Approach to Constructivism). Aleksei Chicherin: Konstruktivizm voskresheniia. Deklaratsii, konstruemy, poeziia, memuary. Issledovaniia i kommentarii (Alexei Chicherin: Constructivism of Resurrection. Declarations, “Construemes”, Poetry, Memoirs. Researches and Commentaries). Saint-Petersburg, Izdatel'stvo Evropeiskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge Publ., 2019, pp. 187-209. (in Russian)
  • Grechko V. Skandinavskii sled: Broder Khristiansen, dominanta i formirovanie kontseptsii russkogo formalizma (Scandinavian Trace: Broder Christiansen, Dominant and the Formation of the Concept of Russian Formalism). Evropa v Rossii (Europe in Russia). Moscow, Novoe Literaturnoe Obozrenie Publ., 2010, pp. 299–311 (in Russian).
  • Kovalenko S.A. Poety-konstruktivisty (Poets-constructivists). Russkaia literatura 1920-1930-kh godov. Portrety poetov (Russian Literature of 1920-30’s. Portraits of the Poets). Moscow, Institut mirovoj literatury Rossijskoj akademii nauk Publ., 2008, pp. 612–656 (in Russian).
  • Kurth E. Grundlagen des linearen Kontrapunkts. Bern: Max Drechsel Publ., 1917 (in German).
  • Maiakovskii V.V. Rasshirenie slovesnoi bazy (Expansion of the Verbal Base). Maiakovskii V.V. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii. (Complete Works) Vol.12. Moscow, Khudozhestvennaia literature Publ., 1959, pp. 159–163 (in Russian).
  • Naumova K. Zinaida Viktorovna Eval'd — sobiratel' i issledovatel' muzykal'nogo fol'klora (Zinaida Viktorovna Evald. Сollector and Researcher of Musical Folklore). Musicus. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskoi gosudarstvennoi konservatorii im. N.A. Rimskogo-Korsakova (Musicus. Bulletin of the Saint Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov State Conservatory). 2016, Vol. 2 (46), pp. 30–36 (in Russian).
  • Ozarovskaia O. Moei studii. Etiudy po khudozhestvennomu chteniiu (To my Studio. Sketches on the Artistic Recitation). No. 1. Moscow, Petrograd, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1923. (in Russian)
  • Peshkovskii A. Russkii sintaksis v nauchnom osveshchenii (Russian Syntax in Scientific Perspective). Moscow, Tipografiia V.M. Sablina Publ., 1914. (in Russian)
  • Polianovskii M. Poet na ekrane: Maiakovskii–kinoakter (Poet on the Screen. Mayakovsky as movie actor). Moscow, Sovetskii pisatel' Publ., 1958 (in Russian).
  • [Sel'vinskii I. et al.] Kakim dolzhen byt' pisatel'skii klub? (What a Writing Club Should Be Like?) Literaturnaia gazeta (Literary Newspaper), no. 3, 7.5.1929, p. 3 (in Russian).
  • Shilov L.A. «Ia slyshal po radio golos Tolstogo...»: Ocherki zvuchashchei literatury (“I heard the voice of Leo Tolstoy on the radio…” Essays on Sounding Literature). Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1989 (in Russian).
  • Shilov L.A. Golosa, zazvuchavshie vnov' (Voices Sounding Anew). Moscow: RUSAKI Publ., 2004 (in Russian).
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  • Tynianov Y. Problema stikhotvornogo iazyka. Stat'i. (The Problem of Verse Language. Articles). Moscow, Sovetskii pisatel' Publ., 1965 (in Russian).
  • Vassena R. K rekonstruktsii istorii i deiatel'nosti Instituta zhivogo slova (1918-1924) (Towards a Reconstruction of the History of the Activity of the Institute of the Living Word (1918-1924)). Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2007, no. 86, pp. 79–95 (in Russian).
  • Vsevolodskii-Gerngross V.N. Iskusstvo deklamatsii. (The Art of Declamation). Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo knizhnogo sektora Leningradskogo gosudarstvenno-obshchestvennogo nauchnogo ob"edineniya Publ., 1925 (in Russian).
  • [Vsevolodskii-Gerngross V.N., Lunacharskiy A., et al.] Zapiski Instituta Zhivogo Slova (Proceedings of the Institute of the Living Word). Petersburg, Narodnyi komissariat po prosveshcheniiu Publ., 1919 (in Russian).
  • Vysheslavtseva S. O motornykh impul'sakh stikha (On the Motor Impulses of the Verse). Poetika. Vremennik Slovesnogo otdela Gosudarstvennogo instituta istorii iskusstv (Poetics. Yearbook of the Literary Studies Department of the State Institute for Art History). No. 3. Leningrad, Academia Publ., 1927, pp. 45–62 (in Russian).
  • Zelinskii K. Poeziia kak smysl. Kniga o konstruktivizme (Poetry as Sense. The Book about Constructivism). Moscow, OGI Publ., 2016 (in Russian).
  • Zolotukhin V. Arkhiv S.I. Bernshteina v Dome-muzee M. Tsvetaevoi (S.I. Bernshtein’s Collection in The Memorial House-Museum of M. Tsvetaeva). Brikovskii sbornik. Vypusk 2: Metodologiia i praktika russkogo formalizma (materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii "II-e Brikovskie chteniia: Metodologiia i praktika russkogo formalizma“) (Osip Brik: In Memoriam. Vol.2. Methodology and Practices of Russian Formalism: Papers of the 2nd Osip Brik International Colloquium Methodology and Practices of Russian Formalism). Moscow, Moskovskiy Gosudarstvenniy Universitet Pechati im. Ivana Fedorova Publ., 2014, pp. 89–93 (in Russian).
  • Zolotukhin V.; Schmidt W. (eds.) Zvuchashchaia khudozhestvennaia rech': Raboty Kabineta izucheniia khudozhestvennoi rechi (1923-1930) (Sounding Artistic Speech. Texts and Works of the Institute for Artistic Speech Research (1923—1930)). Moscow, Tri kvadrata Publ., 2018 (in Russian). .

Sergey GRIBOV

Altai State Institute of Culture, Barnaul, Russia
Department of Choreography, Teacher
Altai State University, Barnaul, Russia
Institute of Arts and Design, PhD Student

From Abductive Logic to Performative Art: Designing the Artistic Communication of a Performer and a Spectator

The article investigates performative art based on the methodological principles of pragmatism. Pragmatism, including the conceptual field of phenomenology (phaneroscopy), puts forward a new paradigm of philosophical logic. Abduction, as a logical model of reasoning, operates with a combination of available knowledge, ideas, which allows the relativity of knowledge, depending on the context in which the subject of research is placed. The theory of abduction, being the logical basis of a pragmatic paradigm, is transformed in avant-garde art practices into the concept of «generative art». The main provisions of abductive reasoning allow us to incorporate logic into artistic activity. In artistic practices, abduction is aimed at considering the modes of vision, memory, imagination, which together form the representation of an art object, event, in the person of the author and the viewer. The article substantiates the use of abduction logic in the theory of speech acts within the framework of genre-style forms of performative art.

Key words: abduction, performative art, avant-garde, speech acts, pragmatism, faneroscopy, generative art, poetic logic, word in performance, intermedial practices.

References

  • Arutjunova N. D., Paducheva E. V. Sources, problems and categories of pragmatics. Novoe v zarubezhnoj lingvistike (New in foreign linguistics), 1985, no. 16, pp. 3–42 (in Russian).
  • Birjukov C. E. About transformational poetics. Trudy Instituta russkogo jazyka im. V. V. Vinogradova (Proceedings of the Vinogradov Russian Language Institute), 2016, no. 7, pp. 253–263 (in Russian).
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Aleksandra DUNAEVA

The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia
School of Advanced Studies in the Humanities, Laboratory for Historical and Cultural Studies
Senior Researcher, Ph.D. in Arts History

Poetics of oral speech in the theater project with the participation of people with special needs on the example of the play “The Conversations” by “The Apartment” project (St. Petersburg, 2017 – 2019)

The article discusses the inclusive performance “The Conversations” by St. Petersburg theatre project “The Apartment”. The specific materiality (E. Fischer-Lichte) of this performance is documented through the speech of actors with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down’s Syndrome. The analysis of the poetics of oral speech is carried out through the concept of oral speech as a semiotic object (B. Gasparov). The author also relies on the concept of speech genres by M. Bakhtin. It is concluded that in the framework of the play the “tabooed” speech of people with special needs is “unritualized” (M. Foucault) by means of the theater and becomes social. This shows the coalescence of the artistic and social components of the performance.

Key words: vocal speech, oral speech, “The Apartment” project, social theatre, inclusion, Boris Gasparov, the aesthet-ics of performativity, Erica Fischer-Lichte, Michel Foucault.

References

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  • Lipavskij L. “The Conversations ‘...Sborishhe druzej, ostavlennyh sud'boju’. A. Vvedenskij, L. Lipavskij, Ja. Druskin, D. Harms, N. Olejnikov: ‘chinari’ v tekstah, dokumentah i issledovanijah. V 2-h tomah” [ ‘…The klatch left by fate’. A. Vvedensky, L. Lipavsky, J. Druskin, D. Harms, N. Oleinikov: ‘chinari’ in texts, documents and studies. In 2 volumes.] Ed.. V. N. Sazhin. Vol.1, Moscow: Ladomir Publ, 2000, pp.67–254. (In Russian).
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Theory of Art

Nigina SHAROPOVA


Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Department of Aesthetics, Junior Research Fellow
National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow, Russia
The Department of Humanitarian Sciences
PhD student of the School of Philosophy

Membrane, Integument, Boundary: Im (material) and Topological Aspects of Image

This paper explores the issue of material aspects of image. The inquiry takes into account the new materialism’s perspective which implies rethinking the concept of matter: to abandon traditional understanding of the material as a passive subject of the active form, which only receives different effects and never produces any. The material turn has an impact on visual and image studies. The relationships between image and its material support has always seemed complicated and problematic. This paper explores the traditionally marked gap between image and its material carrier as well as a physical space filled with material bodies. The examination is based on the main concepts of projective geometry. The projective geometry’s framework is fairly relevant here due to its deep connection with the visual and art. The gap is articulated and described on this geometry basis, at the same time, the attempts are made to rethink and eliminate it. In order to do so, the paper provides several examples of blurring the boundary between image and its material surrounding that become possible due to new materialism’s shift which redefines matter and provides it with agency. Furthermore, the idea of the image itself as a boundary is also considered. As such a border the image separates inner and outer, res cogitans and res extensa, immanent and transcendent. Topological and geometric examination shows that this dividing surface that is the image is non-oriented which means it has only one side.

Key words: Image, picture, visual studies, new materialism, agency, projective geometry, projective plane, topology, cross-cap, non-oriented surfaces, boundary.

References

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Ekaterina VASILYEVA

St. Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Faculty of Arts, Associate Professor, PhD in Arts History

«A Scene in a Library»: to the Problem of Object and to the Rhetoric of Photography

This article is focused on «A Scene in a Library» — the photography of William Henry Fox Talbot, which was published in 1844 in the book «The Pencil of Nature» — the first book about photography and the first book with photographic illustrations. The text recognized the photograph of Talbot as an important precedent. «A Scene in a Library» combined semantic and pictorial principles inherited from the culture of the XVII – XVIII centuries with the concepts that shape the visual system and rhetoric of photography of the XX – XXI centuries. “Scene in the library” outlined the problem of the correlation between visual and verbal, making the rhetoric of Talbot’s image a fragment of the photographic system. The photography was revealed as part of hidden speech and latent conversation. This snapshot became one of the first images that touched the problem of invisible as the part of the semantic program of photography. It became the central element of the modern discussion on photography. «A Scene in a Library» has become one of the key elements in the modern discussion on photography, becoming an appeal to the hidden rhetoric connected with its functional ambiguity and semantic uncertainty. This study examines the visual rhetoric of «A Scene in a Library», analyzes its visual program and semantic vector.

Key words: William Henry Fox Talbot, photography, calotype, Rosalind Krauss, «A Scene in a Library», «The Pencil of Nature».

References

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Review

Alexandra VOLODINA

The Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Junior Research Fellow, PhD in Philosophy

Dynamic Sign and the Living Material of Contemporaneity

This paper examines the theoretical approach to dynamic sign presented in a book by Helen Petrovsky Disturbance of the Sign, or, Culture Against Transcendence. This approach is centered on the interpretation of the sign as a “material body of alterations”. It follows Pierce’s semiotic theory that unfolds in a numerous philosophical, anthropological and biosemiotic projects briefly summarized in this paper. Reflecting on the living corporality of signs and on their modi operandi which fall out of the logic of visual representation, encoding, narrativization or duplication of the world as an object, holds a great potential to study the contemporary art processes (in poetry, photography and cinema as well as in a broader social and cultural landscape). The subjects of research here are very diverse because the analysis is focused not on their ontological qualities but on their similar dynamics of existence and the processes of designation conceptualized as transitions and relations. This paper reviews the research strategies presented in aforementioned book and discusses the importance of these ideas in the context of the currently important semiotic approaches and philosophical tendencies.

Key words: sign, affect, relation, pathos formula, structures of feeling, interpretant, contemporary culture, photography, biosemiotics, Helen Petrovsky, Gilles Deleuze, Charles Sanders Peirce, Eduardo Kohn, Tim Ingold.

References

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Tuesday, 15 November 2011 | Alexey Krivolap
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